Skip to main content

Table 5 Relationship between underweight among children (0–59 months) with household, child, maternal characteristics in Malawi (2010), Tanzania (2009–10) and Zimbabwe (2005–6)

From: Is there a threshold level of maternal education sufficient to reduce child undernutrition? Evidence from Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

Dependent variable Weight-for-Age (below -2SD)
  Malawi Tanzania Zimbabwe
Odds ratio T Odds ratio T Odds ratio T
Explanatory Variables      
Child Demographic Factors
 Age of child (in months) 1.01 2.26c 1.01 1.69 1.00 1.67
 Whether the child is male 1.29 2.20c 1.50 4.01b 1.24 1.31
 Large size of the child at birth 0.38 −6.70b 0.40 −5.54b 0.47 −4.87b
 Child is of multiple birth 2.27 2.35c 2.65 3.98b 2.09 2.51c
 Birth order 1.05 0.94 1.05 1.07 1.03 0.62
Child Health Factors
 Had diarrhoea recently 1.58 3.28b 1.19 1.22 1.54 2.84b
Maternal Demographic Factors
 Mother’s current age 0.98 −1.13 0.99 −0.36 1.00 0.23
 Mother’s body mass - underweight 1.77 2.87b 1.96 3.89b 1.89 3.29b
 Mother’s body mass - normal 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Mother’s body mass - overweight 0.57 −2.32b 0.54 −3.23b 0.76 −1.51
 Mother’s body mass – pregnant and postpartum 0.98 −0.14 0.97 −0.21 0.76 −1.25
 Number of under-five children 1.09 0.93 1.06 0.77 1.28 2.59c
Socioeconomic Factors
 Household head is female 1.62 2.18c 1.42 1.75 0.90 −0.79
 Total number of people in the household 0.97 −0.84 0.98 −0.81 0.92 −2.73b
 Rural residence dummy 0.78 −1.17 0.95 −0.28 1.00 −0.01
 Wealth 0.38 −0.96 0.87 −2.09c 0.95 −0.62
Mother’s education levela       
 Mother’s education – None 1.00   1.00   0.95 −0.14
 Mother’s education – Junior Primary 0.78 −1.49 0.91 −0.43 0.68 −1.30
 Mother’s education – Senior Primary 0.77 −1.46 0.79 −1.71 1.00  
 Mother’s education – Junior Secondary 0.46 −2.34c 0.57 −1.58 0.85 −1.22
 Mother’s education – Senior secondary + 0.45 −1.99c 0.40 −2.18c 0.12 −2.78b
 Household with safe water 0.92 −0.57 0.84 −1.46 1.41 1.73
 Household with improved toilet facility 0.84 −0.97 0.88 −0.83 0.86 −0.70
F Statistic 4.79b 3.65b 4.70b
LR χ2 154.63b 170.45b 139.16b
Pseudo R2 0.05 0.04 0.06
N 4,563 4,821 3,473
  1. Note: aWhile the reference category for maternal education in the multivariate analyses was “no education” in Malawi and Tanzania, it was changed to ‘senior primary’ in Zimbabwe because there were few cases of women (only 4 percent) who had no education in Zimbabwe. Using ‘no education’ as the reference category would not therefore yield any significant results for Zimbabwe; bsignificant at 1 % level; csignificant at 5 % level