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Table 3 Relationship between stunting among children (0–59 months) with household, child, maternal characteristics in Malawi (2010), Tanzania (2009–10) and Zimbabwe (2005–6)

From: Is there a threshold level of maternal education sufficient to reduce child undernutrition? Evidence from Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

Dependent variable Height- for-Age (% below -2SD) =1; 0 otherwise
  Malawi Tanzania Zimbabwe
Odds ratio t Odds ratio t Odds ratio T
Explanatory Variables      
Household Socioeconomic Factors
 Household head is female 0.94 −0.44 1.21 1.59 0.90 −1.05
 Total number of people in the household 0.97 −1.43 0.99 −0.39 0.98 −0.66
 Rural residence dummy 0.89 −0.81 1.05 0.39 1.12 0.56
 Household Wealth 0.87 −3.45b 0.90 −2.39c 0.92 −1.10
Child Demographic Factors
 Age of child (in months) 1.02 7.57b 1.02 6.38b 1.01 3.07b
 Whether the child is male 1.36 4.04b 1.50 5.56b 1.39 4.12b
 Large size of the child at birth 0.48 −5.94b 0.56 −3.74b 0.66 −3.60b
 Child is of multiple birth 2.75 2.56b 3.11 2.73b 2.67 2.79b
 Birth order 1.05 1.46 1.07 2.30c 1.05 1.23
Maternal Demographic Factors
 Mother’s current age 0.98 −1.39 0.97 −2.31c 1.00 −0.36
 Mother’s body mass - underweight 1.20 1.18 1.29 1.89 0.98 −0.14
 Mother’s body mass - normal 1..00   1.00   1.00  
 Mother’s body mass - overweight 0.69 −2.76c 0.83 −1.56 0.81 −1.90
 Mother’s body mass – pregnant and postpartum 0.90 −0.86 0.79 −2.13c 0.73 −2.04c
 Number of under-five children 1.05 0.77 1.02 0.42 1.04 0.49
Mother’s education levela       
 Mother’s education – None 1.00   1.00   0.87 −0.59
 Mother’s education – Junior Primary 0.85 −1.25 1.06 0.45 0.84 −0.78
 Mother’s education – Senior Primary 0.82 −1.57 0.90 −1.02 1.00  
 Mother’s education – Junior Secondary 0.89 −0.56 0.70 −1.50 1.03 0.28
 Mother’s education – Senior secondary + 0.56 −2.24c 0.31 −4.00b 0.51 −2.00c
 Household with safe water 0.91 −0.93 1.05 0.46 1.22 1.65
 Household with improved toilet facility 1.03 0.26 0.74 −2.10c 1.10 0.52
F Statistic 6.70b 5.61b 3.16b
LR χ2 294.68b 302.27b 122.22b
Pseudo R2 0.04 0.05 0.03
N 4,563 4,821 3,472
  1. Note: aWhile the reference category for maternal education in the multivariate analyses was “no education” in Malawi and Tanzania, it was changed to ‘senior primary’ in Zimbabwe because there were few cases of women (only 4 percent) who had no education in Zimbabwe. Using ‘no education’ as the reference category would not therefore yield any significant results for Zimbabwe; bsignificant at 1 % level; csignificant at 5 % level