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Table 2 Percent of children < 5 years with stunting, wasting and underweight by Mother’s Educational Level, residence and child age in Malawi (2010), Tanzania (2009–10) and Zimbabwe (2005–6)

From: Is there a threshold level of maternal education sufficient to reduce child undernutrition? Evidence from Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

  Malawi (2010) Tanzania (2009–10) Zimbabwe (2000–06)
  Height-for-Age Weight-for-height Weight-for-age Height- for-Age Weight-for-height Weight-for-age Height- for-Age Weight-for-height Weight-for-age
  (% below -2SD) (% below -2SD) (% below -2SD) (% below -2SD) (% below -2SD) (% below -2SD) (% below -2SD) (% below -2SD) (% below -2SD)
Mother’s education level         
No education 50.3 4.8 15.1 44.9 6.1 18.9 33.8 7 17.6
Junior Primary 46.9 0.4 12.9 46.3 6.4 17 34.5 7.3 11.6
Senior Primary 42.9 3.7 11.8 41.2 4 14.7 34.1 8.2 14.2
Junior Secondary 41.7 2.4 7.3 30.4 4.9 9.6 32.5 5.1 10.9
Senior Secondary+ 29.9 2.1 6.7 12.5 3.8 5.8 16.7 1.5 1.3
Pearson χ2 46.9 7.6 26.1 97.1 16 40 14 18.1 25.4
P value 0.000 0.23 0.01 0.000 0.02 0.000 0.07 0.01 0.000
Place of Residence         
Urban 38.2 2.4 10.1 30.6 5 11.5 26.6 5.2 8.4
Rural 45.6 4.2 12.4 44 4.8 16.6 35.1 6.8 13.5
Pearson χ2 13.8 5.4 3 79.6 0.12 20.8 25.2 3.1 18.7
P-Value 0.01 0.09 0.25 0.000 0.79 0.000 0.000 0.18 0.000
Child age          
Less than 6 months 14.2 5.7 5.3 18.1 6.1 8.2 13.8 9.3 7.7
6-11 months 25.1 6.2 9.6 24.3 9.9 14.9 23.5 9 11.4
12-23 months 52.5 6.3 15.1 49.3 7 18.4 38.8 6.4 12.7
24-35 months 54.1 2.3 12.8 53.2 3.3 15.6 39.8 6.7 15.5
36-47 months 48.6 2.4 12.2 47.7 2 15.8 39.5 4.8 11.8
48-59 months 46.1 2 12 37.7 3 16.9 28.5 4.5 11.6
Pearson χ2 316.7 50.3 32 401.7 99 42.2 133.1 18.6 16
P-Value 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.02 0.08
Total          
  44.5 3.9 12 41.4 4.8 15.6 32.9 6.4 12.2
N 4, 563 4,821 3, 473