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Table 3 Multiple Cox hazard regression analysis of neonatal mortality in Nigeria, 1990 - 2013

From: Trends in neonatal mortality in Nigeria and effects of bio-demographic and maternal characteristics

Factors Model 1-2008 Model II-2008 Model III-2013 Model IV-1990
  HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Socio-economic characteristics         
Region Model 1A       
North West 1.68 1.42 - 1.98* 1.36 1.01 - 1.82* 0.92 0.63-1.34 1.18 0.86 - 1.61
North East 1.60 1.35 - 1.90* 1.30 0.97 - 1.76 0.74 0.50-1.09 0.71 0.48 - 1.05
North Central 1.32 1.11 - 1.57* 1.15 0.86 - 1.24 0.69 0.47-1.05 0.80 0.55 - 1.18
South East 1.74 1.44 - 2.11* 1.41 1.01 - 1.95* 0.98 0.66-1.45 1.03 0.74 - 1.44
South South 1.38 1.14 - 1.67* 1.00 0.72 - 1.41 0.66 0.42-1.03 0.55 0.37 - 0.84*
South West (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Urban Residence 0.77 0.70 - 0.85* 0.76 0.63 - 0.92* 0.73 0.57-0.93* 0.98 0.78 - 1.24
Maternal education         
None (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Primary - - 1.03 0.85 - 1.24 1.28 1.01-1.63* 1.10 0.86 - 1.41
Secondary and higher 0.80 0.71 - 0.89* 1.03 0.82 - 1.30 0.98 0.72-1.35 0.90 0.59 - 1.38
Marital status         
Currently married/in union 0.75 0.63 - 0.89* 0.52 0.39 - 0.68* 0.59 0.38-0.91* 0.75 0.49 - 1.14
Improved drinking water source 0.89 0.82 - 0.96* 0.94 0.81 - 1.08 1.16 0.97-1.38 - -
Improved toilet facility - - - - - - - -
Healthcare characteristics Model 1B       
Antenatal care 0.70 0.61 - 0.81* 0.80 0.67 - 0.97* 0.59 0.47-0.74* 0.76 0.61 - 0.95*
Skilled delivery - - - - - - - -
TT injection in pregnancy - - - - - - - -
CS- delivery 2.38 1.63 - 3.48* 1.73 1.03 - 2.93* 3.57 2.19-5.82* 1.69 0.93 - 3.08
Delivery at health facility 0.87 0.73 - 1.02 1.05 0.85 - 1.29 1.17 0.88-1.54 0.69 0.53 - 0.90*
Bio-demographic factors Model 1 C       
Male vs Female 1.15 1.05 - 1.25* 1.16 1.01 - 1.32* 1.35 1.14-1.60* 1.13 0.96 - 1.34
Birth order         
1 -   - - - - - -
2 and 3 (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
4+ 1.28 1.16 - 1.41* 1.11 0.94 - 1.30 1.03 0.83-1.27 1.22 0.98 - 1.55
Size of baby at birth         
Large (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Average 1.09 0.99 - 1.20 - - - - - -
Small 1.70 1.53 - 1.89* 1.36 1.15 - 1.60* 2.49 2.06-3.03* 1.72 1.39 - 2.14*
Birth interval         
< 24 months 1.90 1.75 - 2.07* 1.83 1.59 - 2.11* 2.02 1.69-2.41* 1.67 1.41 - 1.98*
>=24 months and above (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Maternal age         
< 20 years 1.75 1.50 - 2.04* 1.48 1.13 - 1.93* 1.25 0.87-1.79 1.06 0.76 - 1.47
20 - 35 years (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
36 years and above 1.16 1.04 - 1.30* 1.54 1.31 - 1.80* 1.40 1.12-1.75* 1.23 0.98 - 1.55
  1. *p<0.05 (statistically significant).