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Table 2 Univariate Cox hazard regression analysis of neonatal mortality in Nigeria, 1990 - 2013

From: Trends in neonatal mortality in Nigeria and effects of bio-demographic and maternal characteristics

Factors 1990 2003 2008 2013
  HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Socio-economic characteristics         
Region         
North West 1.80 1.46 - 2.25* 2.13 1.51 - 3.02* 2.09 1.79 - 2.46* 1.22 0.95-1.57
North East 1.04 0.76 - 1.40 2.36 1.66 - 3.37* 2.01 1.70 - 2.36* 1.10 0.84-1.45
North Central 0.99 0.71 - 1.39 1.76 1.19 - 2.60* 1.59 1.34 - 1.89* 0.89 0.66-1.22
South East 1.29 0.98 - 1.69 0.87 0.55 - 1.38 1.79 1.48 - 2.18* 1.17 0.84-1.63
South South 0.88 0.63 - 1.23 1.82 1.19 - 2.76* 1.55 1.29 - 1.87* 0.94 0.68-1.32
South West (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Urban Residence 0.76 0.65 - 0.90* 0.59 0.49 - 0.72* 0.64 0.58 - 0.71* 0.77 0.65-0.91*
Maternal education         
None (Ref)    1.00   1.00    1.00
Primary 0.77 0.64 - 0.92* 0.88 0.72 - 1.07 0.83 0.76 - 0.91* 1.09 0.90-1.32
Secondary and higher 0.57 0.43 - 0.75* 0.43 0.34 - 0.55* 0.61 0.55 - 0.68* 0.78 0.66-0.93*
Marital status         
Currently married/in union 0.73 0.51 - 1.06 0.98 0.69 - 1.38 0.81 0.68 - 0.96* 0.75 0.55-1.01
Improved drinking water source    0.99 0.84 - 1.17 0.75 0.70 - 0.81* 0.94 0.82-1.09
Improved toilet facility 0.84 0.71 - 0.99 0.77 0.65 - 0.91* 0.92 0.85 - 0.99* 0.88 0.76-1.02
Healthcare characteristics         
Antenatal care 0.56 0.48 - 0.66* 0.59 0.46 - 0.78* 0.74 0.65 - 0.83* 0.58 0.49-0.69*
Skilled delivery 0.76 0.64 - 0.89* 0.69 0.57 - 0.83* 0.69 0.64 - 0.75* 0.88 0.75-1.03
TT injection in pregnancy 0.50 0.43 - 0.59* 0.63 0.48 - 0.82* 0.71 0.63 - 0.80* 0.89 0.72-1.09
CS- delivery 1.46 0.91 - 2.35 0.35 0.16 - 0.77* 1.11 0.81 - 1.52 2.44 1.70-3.49*
Delivery at health facility 0.61 0.51 - 0.73* 0.54 0.44 - 0.66* 0.67 0.61 - 0.73* 0.92 0.79-1.08
Bio-demographic factors         
Sex of baby         
Male vs Female 1.19 1.02 - 1.39* 1.14 0.97 - 1.35 1.15 1.07 - 1.24* 1.33 1.15-1.54*
Birth order         
1 1.16 0.91 - 1.47 1.42 1.13 - 1.79* 1.09 0.98 - 1.22 1.59 1.31-1.95
2 and 3 (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
4+ 1.28 1.06 - 1.55* 1.27 1.04 - 1.54* 1.19 1.09 - 1.30* 1.09 0.91-1.29
Size of baby at birth         
Large (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Average 0.97 0.81 - 1.17 1.04 0.86 - 1.25 1.09 1.00 - 1.19 1.16 0.98-1.38
Small 1.82 1.46 - 2.27* 1.62 1.31 - 2.01* 1.79 1.63 - 1.98* 2.63 2.19-3.16*
Birth interval         
<24 months 1.64 1.38 - 1.95* 1.83 1.51 - 2.21* 1.92 1.76 - 2.09 2.08 1.75-2.47*
> = 24 months (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Maternal age         
<20 years 1.20 0.98 - 1.47 1.36 1.10 - 1.68* 1.51 1.37 - 1.67* 1.54 1.27-1.85*
20 - 35 years (Ref) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
36 years and above 1.29 1.04 - 1.62* 1.25 0.99 - 1.57 1.21 1.09 - 1.35 1.22 0.99 – 1.50
  1. *p<0.05 (statistically significant).