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Table 1 Percentage distribution of live births according to selected background characteristics, Nigeria, 1990 – 2013

From: Trends in neonatal mortality in Nigeria and effects of bio-demographic and maternal characteristics

Factors 1990 (n = 7633) 2003 (n = 5783) 2008 (n = 27685) 2013 (n = 30384)
Background characteristics % % % %
Region     
North West 30.3 30.2 27.9 31.6
North East 9.7 24.8 23.0 20.9
North Central 14.4 16.8 17.6 14.6
South East 13.1 8.7 8.5 8.8
South South 9.9 9.3 11.5 11.9
South West 22.6 10.2 11.5 12.2
Residence     
Rural 65.2 65.0 73.5 67.3
Urban 34.8 35.0 26.5 32.7
Maternal education     
None 58.6 50.5 50.5 47.0
Primary 26.4 24.3 22.8 20.3
Secondary and higher 15.0 25.2 26.7 32.7
Marital status     
Currently married/in union 96.2 94.5 95.5 95.2
Not currently married 3.8 5.5 4.5 4.8
Sex of baby     
Male 49.5 49.1 49.1 50.7
Female 50.5 50.9 50.9 49.3
Household water source     
improved 65.5 28.1 47.9 55.0
not improved 26.8 71.9 52.1 45.0
Household toilet facility     
improved 72.3 71.3 63.2 48.5
not improved 27.7 28.7 36.8 51.5
Maternity Characteristics     
Antenatal care 57.9 60.5 49.6 58.1
Skilled delivery 37.9 37.4 34.8 34.9
Tetanus toxoide injection in pregnancy 54.1 53.7 51.5 60.2
Mode of delivery     
CS- delivery 2.4 1.7 1.5 1.9
Non-CS delivery 97.6 98.3 98.5 98.1
Size of baby at birth     
Large 31.7 42.4 47.0 43.6
Average 52.5 43.3 38.3 40.4
Small 15.8 14.3 14.7 16.0
Place of delivery     
Health facility 40.0 34.9 31.2 36.1
Home 60.0 64.7 67.3 63.9
Birth order     
1 18.1 20.7 19.2 19.9
2 and 3 31.6 31.7 32.9 32.2
4+ 50.3 47.6 47.9 47.9
Birth interval     
first births 18.1 20.7 19.2 19.9
< =24 months 25.5 21.6 21.7 26.5
above 24 months 56.4 57.7 59.1 73.5
Maternal age     
<20 years 14.2 15.3 13.6 12.5
20 - 35 years 73.4 71.6 72.4 73.4
36 years and above 12.4 13.2 13.9 14.1