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Table 1 Neuroimaging severity categorisation [2,49-57]

From: Optimising nutrition to improve growth and reduce neurodisabilities in neonates at risk of neurological impairment, and children with suspected or confirmed cerebral palsy

  Normal/Mild Moderate Severe
Preterm injury    
• Cranial ultrasound scan (cUSS) • Normal • Grade III IVH • Grade IV IVH
• Grade I/II Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) • Non-cystic Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) • Periventricular haemorrhage infarction (PVHI)
• Ventricular index (VI) < 13 mm Term equivalent age (TEA) OR • VI 13-15 mm TEA OR • Cystic PVL
• VI < 97th percentile for corrected gestational age (CGA) • VI >97th percentile but < 4 mm above 97th percentile for CGA • Subcortical leucomalacia
• VI at TEA >15 mm OR
• VI >4 mm above 97th percentile for CGA
• Basal ganglia (BG) lesions
• Focal infarction
Term hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy    
• Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) • Focal subtle abnormalities of BG with normal appearance of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) • Multi-focal lesions in BG with equivocal or abnormal signal intensity within PLIC • Widespread abnormalities involving all Basal ganglia-Thalamus (BGT) structures and PLIC
• cUSS where MRI unavailable • Periventricular white matter changes difficult to differentiate from normal appearances and therefore not classified as abnormal • Small focal lesions of without loss of grey matter (GM)/WM differentiation. • Larger areas of abnormality with loss of GM/WM differentiation, consistent with infarction
• Changes confined to cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter (WM)   • Central grey matter hyperechogenicity +/− more extensive cortical and subcortical hyperechogenicity
Term infarction    
• MRI (cUSS where MRI unavailable)   • Focal, non-territorial infarct • Territorial infarct