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Table 5 Measured motor competence for the three definitions of generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) at follow-up

From: Generalized joint hypermobility in childhood is a possible risk for the development of joint pain in adolescence: a cohort study

  GJH4 GJH5 GJH6
Motor competence < GJH4 ≥ GJH4 p-value < GJH5 ≥ GJH5 p-value < GJH6 ≥ GJH6 p-value
(n = 171) (n = 130)   (n = 217) (n = 84)   (n = 237) (n = 64)  
1 Zigzag hop, no. of consecutive hops, median (range)          
Right leg (n = 300) 6 (0–6) 6 (2–6) 0.72 6 (0–6) 6 (3–6) 0.07 6 (0–6) 6 (3–6) 0.018*
Left leg (n = 298) 6 (0–6) 6 (2–6) 0.67 6 (0–6) 116 (2–6) 0.77 6 (0–6) 6 (2–6) 0.74
Vertical jump, cm, (n = 299), mean (sd) 32.31 (6.42) 31.46 (6.86) 0.33 32.31 (6.33) 31.00 (7.26) 0.15 32.30 (6.29) 30.62 (7.59) 0.12
Sway, mean (sd)          
Romberg open eyes (n = 300)          
295% areal, cm 2 4.57 (2.26) 5.11 (2.42) 0.05 4.72 (2.24) 5.01 (2.61) 0.72 4.73 (2.26) 5.10 (2.62) 0.45
3Anterior-posterior range, cm 2.53 (0.73) 2.67 (0.84) 0.24 2.56 (0.75) 2.67 (0.85) 0.39 2.57 (0.75) 2.68 (0.90) 0.51
4Medial-lateral range, cm 2.56 (0.67) 2.66 (0.75) 0.48 2.61 (0.70) 2.57 (0.72) 0.34 2.61 (0.70) 2.58 (0.73) 0.54
5Centre of pressure path length, mm 56.13 (11.74) 56.53 (9.23) 0.46 56.10 (11.15) 56.83 (9.53) 0.39 56.24 (10.99) 56.54 (9.68) 0.74
Romberg closed eyes (n = 300)          
295% areal, cm 2 8.83 (3.94) 9.39 (5.43) 0.56 8.85 (3.78) 9.63 (6.35) 0.82 9.08 (4.74) 9.02 (4.26) 0.87
3Anterior-posterior range, cm 3.62 (0.86) 3.67 (1.13) 0.88 3.61 (0.85) 3.72 (1.26) 0.94 3.66 (1.03) 3.57 (0.83) 0.53
4Medial-lateral range, cm 3.78 (0.92) 3.92 (0.90) 0.20 3.82 (0.90) 3.90 (0.95) 0.61 3.85 (0.95) 3.82 (0.77) 0.85
5Centre of pressure path length, mm 85.55 (24.25) 85.17 (18.69) 0.59 84.95 (22.73) 86.52 (20.04) 0.30 85.64 (23.34) 84.40 (16.07) 0.79
One leg stance (n = 298)          
295% areal, cm 2 9.80 (3.19) 10.13 (3.73) 0.80 9.90 (3.19) 10.04 (4.02) 0.61 10.01 (3.37) 9.67 (3.69) 0.18
3Anterior-posterior range, cm 4.54 (1.09) 4.63 (1.19) 0.73 4.58 (1.13) 4.57 (1.15) 0.88 4.61 (1.15) 4.44 (1.05) 0.17
4Medial-lateral range, cm 3.25 (0.56) 3.27 (0.61) 0.57 3.27 (0.55) 3.24 (0.65) 0.18 3.27 (0.57) 3.23 (0.63) 0.11
5Centre of pressure path length, mm 132.26 (37.19) 129.23 (32.72) 0.54 132.72 (37.28) 126.27 (29.19) 0.33 132.68 (37.02) 124.34 (27.11) 0.15
  1. 1Zigzag hop measured on a scale from 0–6, where 6: 5 consecutive jumps in first trial; 5: 5 consecutive jumps in second trial; 4: maximum of 4 consecutive jumps; 3: maximum of 3 consecutive jumps; 2: maximum of 2 consecutive jumps; 1: maximum of 1 consecutive jumps; 0: maximum of 0 consecutive jumps. 295% confidence ellipse area of the Centre of Pressure (cm2) 3Anterior-posterior displacement (cm) 4Medial-lateral range displacement (cm) 5Centre of pressure path length (mm).
  2. Methods/Hypothesis testing: Mann–Whitney U-test. Significant difference between groups are marked with *and written with bold.