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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of children on ART and reports of or non report of perceived stigma at National Pediatric Hospital

From: Perceived stigma by children on antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia

  Perceived stigma No perceived stigma Odd ratio (95% CI) p Total
  n = 79 (43.2%) n = 104 (56.8%)    n = 183 (100%)
Females 33 (41.7) 51 (49.0) 0.7 (0.3-1.4) 0.3 84 (45.9)
Median age in years (IQ range) 7.9 6.1 - 0.002 7.0
[6.0-9.8] [3.5-9.0]    [2.0-9.6]
Age over 7 years 59 (74.6) 54 (51.9) 2.73 (1.4-5.4) 0.001 113 (61.7)
Live in main city 53 (67.0) 79 (75.9) 0.6 (0.3-1.3) 0.18 132 (72.1)
Single orphan, mother died 28 (35.4) 36 (34.6) 1.0 (0.5-2.0) 0.9 64 (34.9)
Single orphan, father died 39 (49.4) 43 (41.3) 1.3 (0.7-2.5) 0.2 82 (44.8)
Double orphans 21 (26.6) 24 (23.1) 1.2 (0.5-2.5) 0.5 45 (24.6)
Parents with HIV 67 (84.8) 83 (79.8) 1.4 (0.6-3.3) 0.3 150 (81.9)
-Mother with HIV 61 (77.2) 76 (73.1) 1.2 (0.6-2.6) 0.5 137 (74.9)
Parents’occupation      
-Low skill worker (Father)* 49 (62.0) 64 (61.5) 1.0 (0.5-1.9) 0.9 113 (61.7)
-Low skill worker (Mother) 70 (88.6) 93 (89.4) 0.9 (0.3-2.6) 0.8 163 (89.1)
Parents’education (Father)      
Illiterate 11 (13.9) 16 (15.4) 0.8 (0.3-2.1) 0.7 27 (14.7)
Primary 22 (27.8) 37 (35.6) 0.6 (0.3-1.3) 0.2 59 (32.2)
Parents’education (Mother)      
Illiterate 23 (29.1) 37 (35.6) 0.7 (0.3-1.4) 0.3 60 (32.8)
-Primary (Mother) 57 (72.1) 79 (75.9) 0.8 (0.3-1.6) 0.5 136 (74.3)
Living on less than $1 US/day 61 (77.2) 69 (66.3) 1.7 (0.8-3.5) 0.1 130 (71.0)
Social support** 16 (20.2%) 36 (34.6%) 0.4 (0.2-0.9) 0.03 52 (28.4%)
Go to school (over 5 yrs)*** 60 (89.5) 51 (73.9) 3.0 (1.0-9.2) 0.01 111 (81.6)
Go to school**** 67 (84.8) 69 (66.3) 2.8 (1.2-6.4) 0.004 136 (74.3)
  [30.1-42.8] [27.8-37.1]    
Time since HIV diagnosis (months) 36.5 32.5 - 0.3 34.2
  [30.1-42.8] [27.8-37.1]    [30.4-38.0]
Duration of ART (months) 36.6 36.9   0.9 36.8
[31.1-42.0] [32.0-41.9] [33.2-40.4]
Mean CD4 at 12 months (N = 104) 19.4 19.5   0.9 19.5
[16.9-22.0] [17.4-21.6] [17.8-21.1]
Decreased ART adherence 8 (10.1) 9 (8.6) 1.1 (0.3-3.6) 0.7 17 (9.3)
  1. Variables in bold with p < 0.2 were included in the multivariate analyses.
  2. CI: Confidence interval. Numbers and (percentages). Median and (interquartile range), Mean and [95% confidence interval].
  3. *Low skill worklers were: farmers, workers or factory worker, moto-taxi driver, housework.
  4. **Mostly transportation fees and food supplements.
  5. ***Of 136 children (67 with stigma and 69 no stigma) aged over 5 years eligible for education.
  6. ****All children included in the survey.