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Table 2 Outcomes associated with single respiratory virus infections in children aged < 3 years

From: Clinical evaluation of viral acute respiratory tract infections in children presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in the Netherlands

  Single virus ARTI Statistical analysis
  Total RSV HRV FLU Other vs Multivariate $ P
  N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)   OR (95%CI) value
Diagnostics         
Chemistry/hematology         
 CRP ≥ 35 mg/L 28/81 (35) 11/32 (34) 11/29 (38) 2/9 (22) 4/11 (36) NS
 WBC ≥ 15 x109/L 27/80 (34) 11/32 (34) 11/28 (39) 2/9 (22) 3/11 (27) NS
Bacteriology         NS
 PCR atypical bacteria 0/10 (0) 0/2 (0) 0/4 (0) 0/1 (0) 0/3 (0) NS
 Culture, sterile site 2/45 (4) 0/15 (0) 1/17 (6) 0/7 (0) 1/6 (17) NS
 Culture, non-sterile site 1/19 (5) 0/7 (0) 0/8 (0) 0/1 (0) 1/3 (33) NS
Pulmonary imaging         
 LRTI# 31/63 (37) 15/24 (63) 10/25 (40) 3/6 (33) 3/8 (38) NS
Treatment         
Antibiotics 50/122 (41) 24/53 (45) 17/43 (40) 3/11 (27) 6/15 (40) NS
Bronchodilators 31/113 (27) 12/48 (25) 15/39 (38) 2/11 (18) 2/15 (13) HRV vs Other 7.0 (1.2-42) .03
       HRV overall 3.0 (1.2-7.8) .02
Steroids 26/117 (22) 8/52 (15) 13/39 (33) 2/11 (18) 3/15 (20) HRV vs RSV 3.5 (1.2-11) .03
       HRV overall 3.4 (1.2-9.3) .02
Oxygen therapy 67/118 (57) 38/52 (73) 22/41 (54) 1/10 (10) 6/15 (40) RSV vs FLU 26 (3.0-225) < .01
       RSV vs Other 4.2 (1.3-14) .02
       HRV vs FLU 11 (1.2-97) .03
       RSV overall 3.6 (1.6-8.0) < .01
       FLU overall .05 (.01-.40) < .01
Adverse outcome         
Hospital admission 99/123 (80) 46/53 (87) 33/44 (75) 8/11 (73) 12/15 (80) NS
Severe respiratory complication 15/123 (12) 3/53 (6) 9/44 (20) 1/11 (9) 2/15 (13) HRV vs RSV 5.0 (1.2-21) .03
       HRV overall 3.5 (1.0-11) .04
       RSV overall .24 (.06-.92) .04
 Apnea 5/123 (4) 1/53 (2) 4/44 (9) 0/11 (0) 0/15 (0) NS
 Intubation 7/123 (6) 1/53 (2) 5/44 (11) 0/11 (0) 1/15 (7) NS
 ALTE 6/123 (5) 1/53 (2) 3/44 (7) 1/11 (9) 1/15 (7) NS
Mortality ≤ 7 days 0/123 (0) 0/53 (0) 0/44 (0) 0/11 (0) 0/15 (0) NS
  1. ARTI, Acute Respiratory Tract Infection, CRP, C-reactive protein; WBC, White Blood Cell count; LRTI, lower respiratory tract infection; ALTE, Apparent Life Threatening Events; NS, not significant.
  2. #LRTI was defined as radiologic presence of alveolar infiltrates, interstitial opacities, peribronchial infiltrates or hyperinflation.
  3. $Multivariate correction for sex, age and underlying disease (forward stepwise adjustment) using logistic regression analysis.