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Table 2 Factors associated with antibiotic prescription: visits for common respiratory infections. Univariate and multivariate analysis

From: Why do paediatricians prescribe antibiotics? Results of an Italian regional project

Variable N* of children Antibiotic prescriptions % OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Child's age     
   ≤2 years 1370 33% 1 1
   >2 years 2943 40% 1.35 (1.18 - 1.55) * 0.98 (0.80 - 1.19)
Parent born abroad     
   No 625 37% 1 1
   Yes 3653 45% 1.37 (1.16 - 1.63)* 1.71 (1.36 - 2.15) *
Day care attendance     
   No 1461 34% 1 1
   Yes 2683 39% 1.27 (1.11 - 1.45)* 1.12 (0.93 - 1.35)
Was the parent expecting an antibiotic prescription?     
   No 2524 19% 1 1
   Yes 1050 77% 14.21 (11.94 - 16.91)* 12.83 (10.43 - 15.79)*
   Don't know 712 49% 4.15 (3.48 - 4.96)* 3.48 (2.82 - 4.30) *
Exudate or tonsillar hyperemia     
   No 2077 31% 1 1
   Yes 2275 44% 1.70 (1.50 - 1.93)* 1.63 (1.36 - 1.96) *
Facial pain     
   No 4284 37% 1 1
   Yes 68 71% 4.03 (2.39 - 6.82)* 4.85 (2.25 - 10.46) *
Otalgia     
   No 3505 33% 1 1
   Yes 847 60% 2.79 (2.39 - 3.25)* 2.02 (1.60 - 2.55) *
Periorbital edema     
   No 4284 38% 1 1
   Yes 68 47% 1.47 (0.91 - 2.38) 1.67 (0.89 - 3.14)
Diarrhoea     
   No 4224 38% 1 1
   Yes 128 24% 0.52 (0.34 - 0.78)* 0.55 (0.32 - 0.93) *
Cervical adenopathy     
   No 3457 33% 1 1
   Yes 895 57% 2.67 (2.30 - 3.11)* 2.09 (1.70 - 2.59) *
Bulging tympanic membrane     
   No 3959 34% 1 1
   Yes 393 78% 6.77 (5.29 - 8.65)* 5.68 (4.06 - 7.94) *
Otorrhea     
   No 4281 37% 1 1
   Yes 71 96% (12.20 - 123.60)* 28.06 (6.32 - 124.51)*
Rhinorrhea     
   No 2.521 40% 1 1
   Yes 1.831 35% 0.83 (0.73 - 0.94)* 0.72 (0.61 - 0.86) *
Fever     
   ≤38°C 2713 29% 1 1
   >38°C 1639 53% 2.86 (2.52 - 3.25) * 2.34 (1.97 - 2.79) *
Associated chronic diseases     
   No 4135 38% 1 1
   Yes 217 44% 1.30 (0.98 - 1.71) 1.29 (0.88 - 1.88)
Physician age**     1.02 (0.95-1.10)
  1. * statistically significant p < 0.05
  2. **OR for 5 years of age increase