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Table 4 Associations between below normal scores on the TEPROSIF evaluation and early-life feeding or sucking behaviors using logistic regression.

From: The relationship of bottle feeding and other sucking behaviors with speech disorder in Patagonian preschoolers

Risk Factor Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
p Adjusted1
OR (95% CI)
P
Gestation     
   Normal (38 - 40 wks) 1.0 (REF) .105 1.0 (REF) .09
   Below normal 3.17 (1.0, 9.6) .042 3.27 (1.0, 10.2) .04
   Above normal .854 (.30, 2.4) .768 .745 (.25, 2.18) .59
Age started bottle feeding     
   Less than 3 mths 1.0 (REF) .151 1.0 (REF) .13
   3 to 9 mths .617 (.27, 1.4) .247 .601 (.26, 1.4) .23
   More than 9 mths .339 (.11, 1.0) .055 .315 (.10, .98) .05
Bottle fed     
   No 1.0 (REF) .621 1.0 (REF) .48
   Yes .679 (.15, 3.2) .621 .568 (.1, 2.8)  
Time bottle feeding     
   Less than 18 mths 1.0 (REF) .521 1.0 (REF) .59
   18 to 36 mths .731 (.24, 2.2) .575 .788 (.26, 2.4) .68
   More than 36 mths 1.16 (.40, 3.4) .785 1.21 (.41, 3.6) .73
Breastfed     
   No 1.0 (REF) .588 1.0 (REF) .63
   Yes .604 (.10, 3.7) .588 .637 (.10, 4.0)  
Time breastfeeding     
   Less than 6 mths 1.0 (REF) .242 1.0 (REF) .28
   6 to 12 mths .560 (.24, 1.3) .185 .559 (.24, 1.33) .19
   More than 12 mths .474 (.19, 1.2) .110 .496 (.20, 1.3) .14
Use of pacifier    1.0 (REF)  
   No 1.0 (REF) .360 1.0 (REF) .39
   Yes 1.39 (.69, 2.8) .360 1.37 (.67, 2.8)  
Time with pacifier     
   No use 1.0 (REF) .07 1.0 (REF) .08
   Less than one year 1.74 (.51, 5.98) .38 1.54 (.44, 5.45) .50
   1-3 years .58 (.21, 1.59) .29 .58 (.21, 1.61) .29
   Greater than 3 years 3.23 (1.04, 9.99) .04 3.42 (1.08, 10.81) .04
Sucked fingers     
   No 1.0 (REF) .029 1.0 (REF) .03
   Yes 2.95 (1.1, 7.8) .029 2.99 (1.1, 8.0)  
Time sucking finger     
   0 to 12 mths 1.0 (REF) .314 1.0 (REF) .21
   12 to 30 mths 5.33 (.34, 75.8) .216 12.3 (.45, 343.5) .14
   > 30 mths 5.33 (.34, 75.8) .216 14.5 (.48, 442.0) .12
  1. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are shown
  2. 1Adjusted for gender and age