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Table 1 Prevalence of stunting and severe stunting in children aged 0-23 months and 0-59 months

From: Prevalence and risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in North Maluku province of Indonesia

Characteristic n Stunted children 0-23 Months Severely stunted children 0-23 Months Stunted children 0-59 Months Severely stunted children 0-59 Months
   % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
Region      
Rural 536 27.1 (21.0-34.3) 13.8 (9.5-19.5) 33.4 (28.6-38.6)* 15.9 (12.4-20.1)
Urban 1632 29.6 (26.2-33.2) 14.2 (11.4-17.6) 40.0 (37.2-42.9) 19.2 (16.4-22.3)
District      
Ternate 387 30.9 (23.8-39.1) 14.2 (9.9-19.9) 36.4 (31.0-42.2) 16.0 (12.3-20.6)
Tidore 149 19.1 (10.4-32.5) 12.8 (4.9-29.2) 25.5 (18.9-33.4) 15.4 (8.6-26)
Central Halmahera 280 32.3 (25.7-39.7) 15.5 (11.3-21) 42.9 (36.5-49.5) 23.2 (18.1-29.3)
East Halmahera 280 37.0 (28.3-46.7) 21.9 (13.2-34.3) 42.5 (33.2-52.4) 23.6 (14.6-35.8)
West Halmahera 178 23.7 (15.9-33.8) 6.2 (3.1-12.0) 38.2 (33.2-43.5) 16.3 (12.5-21)
North Halmahera 279 31.1 (24.5-38.6) 13.3 (9.1-19.1) 41.6 (34.5-49.0) 17.2 (12.6-23.0)
South Halmahera 446 24.7 (19.7-30.5) 12.4 (8.2-18.2) 38.6 (35.2-42.1) 19.3 (15.1-24.3)
Sula-Isles 169 27.4 (20.7-35.3) 10.7 (6.7-16.8) 34.3 (29.6-39.4) 11.2 (9-14.0)
Household factors      
Father's education      
Completed Elementary School (aged 7-12) 832 32.0 (27.2-37.2) 16.2 (12.6-20.7) 41.8 (37.8-45.9)* 20.9 (17.6-24.7)*
Completed Middle School (aged 13-15) 557 28.4 (23.4-34.0) 13.2 (9.7-17.6) 39.3 (35.2-43.6) 19.0 (15.5-23.2)
Completed High School (aged 16-18) 779 26.3 (22.0-31.2) 12.6(9.2-17) 34.0 (30.3-37.9) 15.2 (12.1-18.8)
Mother's education      
Completed Elementary School (aged 7-12) 1163 30.8 (27.0-34.9) 16.7 (13.6-20.30* 41.6 (38.4-44.9)** 20.9 (18.0-24.3)**
Completed Middle School (aged 13-15) 514 29.7 (24.5-35.5) 11.5 (8-16.4) 37.7 (32.8-43) 15.8 (12.4-19.8)
Completed High School (aged 16-18) 491 24.5 (19.6-30.2) 11.2 (7.7-16.1) 31.4 (27.0-36.0) 14.9 (11.7-18.8)
Parental Education      
Both with high education 871 26.2 (22.1-30.7) 11.3 (8.4-14.9) 33.6 (30-37.5)** 15.4 (12.7-18.6)*
Father with high education 134 33.3 (22.7-46.0) 12.0 (5.6-23.7) 41.0 (32.6-50.1) 14.9 (9.4-22.9)
Mother with high education 465 29.2 (23.5-35.7) 16.1 (11.8-21.5) 41.1 (37.1-45.1) 19.4 (15.6-23.8)
Neither with high education 698 31.7 (26.9-37.1) 17.1 (13.1-21.9) 41.9 (37.7-46.4) 22.1 (18.4-26.2)
Provided with nutritional information during pregnancy (n = 2110)
No 729 29.9 (25.4-35.0) 16.0 (12.8-19.9) 42.0 (37.7-46.4) 21.1 (17.6-25.1)
Yes 1381 28.2 (24.9-31.9) 12.9 (10.1-16.3) 36.6 (33.7-39.7) 17.0 (14.3-20.1)
Father's occupation      
Any Labour 1396 29.3 (25.6-33.3) 15.1 (12.2-18.7) 40.0 (36.9-43.2) 19.3 (16.7-22.3)**
Fisher man 355 27.9 (22.6-33.8) 12.5 (8.5-18) 35.5 (30.8-40.5) 18.0 (14.5-22.1)
No work 60 35.9 (21.7-53.1) 20.5 (10.4-36,5) 45.0 (34.0-56.5) 28.3 (18.5-40.5)
Government private officer 357 27.7 (20.9-35.7) 10.8 (6.9-16.5) 33.9 (29-39.2) 13.2 (9.8-17.5)
Mother's occupation      
Any Labour 694 29.9 (25.3-34.9) 14.4 (11.4-18.2) 39.5 (35.4-43.8) 18.4 (15.4-22)
Fisher woman 96 30.6 (20.6-42.8) 18.4 (9.8-31.8) 38.5 (30.8-46.9) 22.9 (15.5-32.5)
No work 1302 28.4 (24.4-32.7) 13.6(10.4-17.6) 37.9 (34.5-41.4) 18.1 (15.2-21.5)
Government private officer 76 29.2 (17.7-44.0) 14.6 (8.0-25.0) 36.8 (27.6-47.2) 15.8 (10.2-23.7)
Parental employment      
Both working 838 29.8 (25.8-34.2) 14.9 (11.9-18.6) 38.7 (35.3-42.2) 18.1 (15.4-21.3)
Father only working 1270 28.1 (24.1-32.4) 13.2 (10.0-17.2) 37.9 (34.5-41.4) 18.0 (15.1-21.4)
Mother only working 28 33.3 (14.2-60.2) 13.3 (2.8-44.8) 53.6 (38.5-68.1) 35.7 (19.7-56.8)
Neither working 32 37.5 (21.1-57.4) 25.0 (11.7-45.7) 37.5 (23.1-54.6) 21.9 (11.4-38.0)
Household wealth Index      
Poorest 867 32.9 (27.6-38.7) 17.4 (13.4-22.4)** 43.1 (39.0-44.0)** 21.1 (17.4-25.4)**
Middle 867 28.2 (24.3-32.5) 13.9 (11.0-17.6) 37.4 (33.9-40.9) 18.9 (16.3-21.9)
Least Poor 434 23.4 (18.1-29.7) 8.3 (5.1-13.4) 30.9 (26.4-35.8) 11.8 (8.7-15.7)
Household member      
≤5 members 1359 31.3 (27.6-35.4) 14.8 (11.6-18.7) 39.3 (36.2-42.5) 18.5 (15.7-21.7)
6-12 members 809 24.9 (21-29.4) 12.9 (10.1-16.4) 36.8 (33.0-40.8) 18.1 (15.2-21.3)
Number of family Meals per day      
2 Times 675 24.9 (20.5-29.8) 13.1 (9.9-17.1) 36.3 (32.2-40.6) 17.6 (14.3-21.6)
>2 Times 1493 30.8 (27.0-34.8) 14.5 (11.5-18.2) 39.3 (36.22-42.5) 18.7 (16-21.8)
Child level factors      
Child's age in category      
0-5 266 12.8 (9.1-17.7)*** 7.9 (5.6-11.0)*** 12.8 (9.1-17.7)*** 7.9 (5.6-11.0)***
6-11 365 24.1 (19.3-29.7) 10.1 (5.6-11.0)*** 24.1 (19.3-29.7) 10.1 (6.6-15.2)
12-17 318 33.9 (28.6-39.7) 15.7 (5.6-11.0)*** 33.9 (28.6-39.7) 15.7 (11.7-20.8)
18-23 234 48.3 (40.3-56.3) 25.2 (5.6-11.0)*** 48.3 (40.3-56.3) 25.2 (18.8-32.9)
24-29 238    48.7 (42.2-55.4) 26.5 (20.4-33.6)
30-35 169    51.5 (42.9-60.0) 23.1 (16.8-30.8)
36-41 215    52.6 (45.9-59.1) 25.6 (20.5-31.5)
42-47 147    47.6 (37.7-57.7) 19.7 (13-28.8)
48-53 135    49.6 (39.9-59.4) 23.7 (16.8-32.3)
54-59 81    44.4 (34.6-54.8) 16.1 (8.7-27.6)
Gender      
Male 1115 32.2 (28.0-36.7)* 16.7 (13.2-21.1)** 41.4 (37.9-44.8)* 20.5 (17.4-24.1)**
Female 1053 25.6 (21.6-30.1) 11.3 (8.9-14.3) 35.2 (31.8-38.8) 16.1 (13.7-18.7)
Antenatal visit (n = 2110)      
No 91 39.6 (27.2-53.4) 16.7 (7.6-32.7) 44.0 (35.1-53.2) 23.1 (15.4-33.1)
Yes 2019 28.4 (25.4-31.5) 16.7 (11.5-16.6) 38.2 (35.6-40.9) 18.2 (15.9-20.8)
Overall   29.0 (26.0-32.2) 16.7 (11.7-17.0) 38.4 (35.9-41.0) 18.4 (16.1-20.9)
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001; X2-test was applied to test statistical significance
  2. Weighted total was 2168 otherwise stated within brackets