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Table 1 Characteristics of children enrolled in the HIV programs at the time of registration and their outcomes.

From: Excellent outcomes among HIV+ children on ART, but unacceptably high pre-ART mortality and losses to follow-up: a cohort study from Cambodia

  <18 months 18–59 months ≥ 60 months Total
Number of children registered 69 (5.9%) 479 (41.0%) 620 (53.1%) 1168
Gender     
Female 33 (47.8%) 230 (48.0%) 292 (47.1%) 555 (47.5%)
WHO or CDC stage     
WHO 1/2 or CDC stage N/A/B 34 (50.0%) 310 (64.7%) 395 (63.7%) 739 (63.3%)
WHO 3/4 or CDC C 34 (50.0%)
(n = 68)
169 (35.3%) 225 (36.3%) 428 (36.7%)
(n = 1167)
CD4 cells/mm3, median (IQR) 753 (338–1280)
(n = 40)
643 (310–1049)
(n = 353)
245 (40–599)
(n = 561)
410 (94–818)
(n = 954)
CD4 cells/mm3     
<50 2 (5.0%) 22 (6.2%) 149 (26.6%) 173 (18.1%)
50–350 8 (20.0%) 75 (21.3%) 175 (31.2%) 258 (27.0%)
>350 30 (75.0%) 256 (72.5%) 237 (42.2%) 523 (54.8%)
CD4%, median (IQR) 18.71(12.44–23.75)
(n = 48)
18 (10–24.8)
(n = 415)
9.41 (2.76–18.72)
(n = 399)
14.47 (5.33–23)
(n = 862)
CD4% group3     
<15.0% 16 (33.3%) 164 (39.5%) 260 (65.2%) 440 (51.0%)
15–24.9% 21 (43.7%) 148 (35.7%) 81 (20.3%) 250 (29.0%)
≥ 25.0% 11 (22.9%) 103 (24.8%) 58 (14.5%) 172 (20.0%)
Weight for height*     
≥ -2 z-score 33 (55.0%) 366 (81.0%) 435 (76.7%) 834 (77.3%)
<-2 and ≥ -3 z-score 12 (20.0%) 53 (11.7%) 82 (14.5%) 147 (13.6%)
<-3 z-score 15 (25.0%) 33 (7.3%) 50 (8.8%) 98 (9.1%)
Weight for age     
≥ -2 z-score 29 (42%) 153 (31.9%) 127 (20.5%) 309 (26.5%)
<-2 and ≥ -3 z-score 12 (17.4%) 176 (36.7%) 287 (46.4%) 475 (40.7%)
<-3 z-score 28 (40.6%) 150 (31%) 205 (33.1%) 383 (32.8%)
Year of admission     
2003 2 (2.9%) 53 (11.1%) 36 (5.8%) 91 (7.8%)
2004 13 (18.8%) 117 (24.4%) 183 (29.5%) 313 (26.8%)
2005 17 (24.6%) 123 (25.7%) 165 (26.6%) 305 (26.1%)
2006 19 (27.5%) 109 (22.8%) 130 (21.0%) 258 (22.1%)
2007 18 (26.1%) 77 (16.1%) 106 (17.1%) 201 (17.2%)
Started ART§ 42 (60.9%) 278 (58.0%) 394 (63.6%) 714 (61.1%)
Follow up time in days, median (IQR) 333 (134–840) 755 (349–1207) 750.5 (320.5–1193) 733.5 (314.5–1182.5)
Outcome on study termination:     
Alive and in active follow up 40 (58.0%) 361 (75.4%) 448 (72.3%) 849 (72.7%)
Dead 15 (21.7%) 37 (7.7%) 53 (8.6%) 105 (9.0%)
Lost to follow up* 8 (11.6%) 42 (8.8%) 63 (10.2%) 113 (9.7%)
transferred 6 (8.7%) 39 (8.1%) 56 (9.0%) 101 (8.6%)  
  1. WHO: World Health Organization; CDC: Centre for Disease Control; IQR: inter-quartile range; ART: anti-retroviral treatment
  2. last contact with clinic > 3 months
  3. §32 patients switched to second line therapy during the study period
  4. CD4 count and %: measured within 120 days after date of registration or HIV status confirmation