Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in parentheses.

From: The social determinants of child health: variations across health outcomes – a population-based cross-sectional analysis

Variable Asthma Migraine Ear Infections Resp. Allergy Food Allergy Skin Allergy
Male (ref.: female) 1.43
(1.31–1.56)**
0.87
(0.77–0.98)*
0.98
(0.86–1.11)
1.18
(1.11–1.26)**
1.07
(0.94–1.22)
0.96
(0.88–1.04)
Age 1.03
(1.02–1.04)**
1.15
(1.13–1.17)**
0.86
(0.85–0.87)**
1.04
(1.03–1.04)**
0.96
(0.95–0.98)**
0.96
(0.95–0.97)**
Race (ref.: Caucasian)       
   Hispanic 0.92
(0.78–1.09)
0.94
(0.76–1.15)
0.75
(0.60–0.93)*
0.65
(0.57–0.74)**
0.93
(0.71–1.21)
0.94
(0.81–1.10)
   African American 1.62
(1.41–1.86)**
1.02
(0.85–1.23)
0.63
(0.49–0.80)**
0.97
(0.86–1.08)
0.98
(0.79–1.22)
1.83
(1.62–2.08)**
   Other 1.20
(1.00–1.45)
0.97
(0.71–1.32)
0.65
(0.49–0.85)**
0.93
(0.81–1.08)
1.19
(0.93–1.53)
1.31
(1.10–1.58)**
Household income (ref.: ≥ 400% of federal poverty level (FPL))
   0–99% of FPL 1.44
(1.21–1.71)**
1.61
(1.28–2.02)**
1.69
(1.31–2.19)**
0.96
(0.84–1.10)
1.06
(0.82–1.37)
0.89
(0.75–1.06)
   100–199% of FPL 1.17
(1.02–1.33)*
1.29
(1.08–1.54)**
1.40
(1.15–1.71)**
0.92
(0.83–1.02)
0.97
(0.78–1.21)
0.94
(0.82–1.07)
   200–299% of FPL 1.11
(0.98–1.26)
1.10
(0.93–1.30)
1.22
(1.01–1.48)*
0.99
(0.90–1.08)
0.99
(0.82–1.21)
0.85
(0.76–0.96)**
   300–399% of FPL 1.10
(0.96–1.25)
1.14
(0.94–1.38)
1.06
(0.86–1.29)
0.98
(0.89–1.07)
0.96
(0.80–1.17)
0.86
(0.76–0.98)*
Household education (ref.: HS or less)       
   Greater than HS 1.11
(1.00–1.24)
1.06
(0.92–1.22)
0.76
(0.65–0.89)**
1.41
(1.29–1.54)**
1.27
(1.07–1.52)**
1.30
(1.17–1.44)**
No one employed
(ref.: employed)
0.98
(0.85–1.14)
1.32
(1.05–1.67)*
1.24
(0.99–1.56)
1.13
(1.00–1.28)*
1.18
(0.94–1.49)
0.99
(0.84–1.17)
Parent mental health (ref.: excellent)       
   Very good/Good 1.28
(1.16–1.41)**
1.39
(1.21–1.60)**
1.37
(1.19–1.59)**
1.37
(1.28–1.47)**
1.32
(1.15–1.51)**
1.27
(1.17–1.39)**
   Fair/Poor 1.80
(1.50–2.16)**
2.83
(2.22–3.61)**
2.26
(1.74–2.93)**
2.01
(1.74–2.33)**
1.84
(1.36–2.50)**
1.92
(1.60–2.29)**
Fam. structure (ref.: 2 bio. parents)       
   Two step-parents 1.19
(1.02–1.39)*
1.18
(0.99–1.40)
0.98
(0.78–1.22)
0.96
(0.86–1.08)
1.03
(0.80–1.32)
1.00
(0.86–1.17)
   Single mother 1.23
(1.10–1.39)**
1.24
(1.06–1.45)**
1.08
(0.91–1.28)
1.07
(0.98–1.17)
1.01
(0.84–1.21)
0.97
(0.86–1.08)
   Single father 0.79
(0.60–1.05)
0.76
(0.50–1.14)
0.54
(0.38–0.77)**
0.57
(0.46–0.70)**
0.56
(0.36–0.89)*
0.60
(0.46–0.80)**
   Other 1.61
(0.97–2.70)
1.55
(0.87–2.77)
1.70
(0.72–3.99)
1.34
(0.89–2.01)
2.04
(0.89–4.66)
0.61
(0.35–1.08)
Household smoker
(ref.: no)
1.17
(1.06–1.30)**
1.12
(0.99–1.27)
1.32
(1.14–1.53)**
1.06
(0.99–1.14)
1.08
(0.93–1.26)
1.03
(0.94–1.13)
Child health insurance
(ref.: no insurance)
1.46
(1.18–1.82)**
1.20
(0.94–1.55)
0.97
(0.76–1.24)
1.22
(1.05–1.44)*
1.24
(0.94–1.63)
1.19
(0.98–1.43)
Number of household children 0.94
(0.89–0.98)**
0.99
(0.93–1.06)
0.92
(0.85–0.99)*
0.89
(0.86–0.93)**
0.88
(0.81–0.96)**
0.93
(0.89–0.98)**
Personal health profession. (ref.: no) 1.81
(1.55–2.11)**
1.36
(1.11–1.65)**
1.51
(1.20–1.90)**
1.87
(1.66–2.10)**
1.48
(1.19–1.84)**
1.21
(1.06–1.38)**
Region (ref.: New England)       
   Great Lakes 0.93
(0.81–1.07)
0.82
(0.68–0.98)*
1.09
(0.88–1.35)
1.10
(0.99–1.23)
0.67
(0.54–0.83)**
0.82
(0.72–0.93)**
   Mid-east 0.95
(0.82–1.10)
0.79
(0.64–0.97)*
1.25
(0.99–1.57)
1.20
(0.98–1.35)**
1.07
(0.87–1.32)
0.91
(0.79–1.04)
   Plains 0.81
(0.70–0.94)**
0.77
(0.64–0.93)**
1.00
(0.80–1.26)
1.09
(0.98–1.22)
0.62
(0.49–0.78)**
0.81
(0.71–0.93)**
   Southeast 0.92
(0.81–1.04)
0.86
(0.73–1.01)
1.22
(1.00–1.48)
1.39
(1.26–1.53)**
0.88
(0.73–1.05)
0.80
(0.71–0.90)**
   Southwest 1.15
(0.96–1.37)
0.99
(0.78–1.25)
1.32
(1.00–1.73)*
1.89
(1.65–2.15)**
0.75
(0.57–1.00)*
0.74
(0.62–0.89)**
   Rockies 0.83
(0.70–0.99)*
0.81
(0.66–1.01)
0.77
(0.60–1.00)
1.27
(1.12–1.44)**
1.04
(0.83–1.31)
0.92
(0.80–1.07)
   Far west 0.82
(0.68–0.99)*
0.74
(0.58–0.95)*
0.95
(0.71–1.27)
0.91
(0.78–1.06)
0.83
(0.94–1.49)
0.72
(0.61–0.86)**
Pseudo R 2 0.033 0.066 0.070 0.038 0.019 0.024
BIC' -1241.93 -1746.76 -1424.60 -2293.64 -125.79 -859.53
N 77,995 69,153 69,143 78,185 78,290 78,297
  1. * p < .05; ** p < .01; N = number of valid cases for each model.