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Table 2 Associations between parental sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and psychosocial factors and antibiotic use in 8-month old children, Malmö, Sweden.

From: Antibiotic use among 8-month-old children in Malmö, Sweden – in relation to child characteristics and parental sociodemographic, psychosocial and lifestyle factors

Characteristics Use of antibiotics
n (%)
Crude OR
95% CI
Adjusted OR
95% CI
Model 1a)
Adjusted OR
95% CI
Model 2b)
Adjusted OR
95% CI
Model 3c)
Adjusted OR
95% CI
Model 4d)
Parents' country of birth       
   Parents born in Sweden 837 (20.8) 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00
   One parent born in Sweden 254 (20.9) 1.00 (0.85–1.17) 1.01 (0.86–1.19)   0.98 (0.83–1.15) 1.09 (0.91–1.32)
   Parents born outside Sweden 378 (27.4) 1.43 (1.24–1.65) 1.47 (1.28–1.70)   1.35 (1.16–1.57) 1.73 (1.44–2.07)
Maternal educational level       
   > 12 years 800 (20.1) 1.00 1.00 1.00   1.00
   10–12 years 512 (24.2) 1.27 (1.12–1.44) 1.28 (1.12–1.45) 1.22 (1.07–1.40)   1.15 (0.99–1.34)
   ≤ 9 years 202 (28.9) 1.61 (1.34–1.93) 1.67 (1.39–2.01) 1.47 (1.19–1.80)   1.25 (0.98–1.60)
Maternal employment status       
   Parental leave 1254 (22.2) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Working 117 (19.8) 0.86 (0.69–1.06) 0.88 (0.71–1.09) 0.90 (0.73–1.12) 0.91 (0.73–1.13) 1.01 (0.78–1.30)
   Other 141 (24.2) 1.11 (0.91–1.36) 1.09 (0.89–1.33) 1.00 (0.81–1.24) 0.99 (0.80–1.23) 0.98 (0.76–1.26)
Maternal smoking during pregnancy       
   No 1353 (22.0) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Yes 138 (25.1) 1.19 (0.97–1.46) 1.20 (0.97–1.47) 1.12 (0.91–1.39) 1.02 (0.81–1.27) 0.93 (0.72–1.20)
Environmental smoking       
   No 1207 (21.4) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Yes 313 (25.5) 1.25 (1.09–1.45) 1.27 (1.10–1.47) 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 1.10 (0.94–1.29) 0.97 (0.80–1.17)
Economic stress       
   No 1334 (21.6) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Yes 124 (30.0) 1.55 (1.24–1.93) 1.58 (1.27–1.98) 1.47 (1.16–1.86) 1.38 (1.08–1.75) 1.44 (1.09–1.91)
Emotional support       
   High 1239 (21.3) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Low 266 (28.4) 1.47 (1.26–1.71) 1.49 (1.27–1.74) 1.35 (1.13–1.61) 1.29 (1.07–1.54) 1.40 (1.13–1.73)
  1. a) Adjusted for year and gender
  2. b) Adjusted for year, gender and parents' country of birth
  3. c) Adjusted for year, gender, parents' country of birth and maternal educational level
  4. d) Adjusted for year, gender, parents' country of birth, maternal educational level and recurrent infections