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Table 1 Outcome variables and potential confounding/effect modifying variables

From: Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study

Cardiometabolic risk profile Direct outcome
Derived outcome variables Potential confounding/effect modifying (EM) variables
Body size, body composition and fat distribution WC BMI (primary outcome variable) gender (EM)
   WHtR prematurity (EM)
   Fat% Family history positive for CVD or metabolic diseases
   FFM maternal smoking
    maternal and paternal BMI
Insulin sensitivity Gluc HOMA-IR maternal educational level and cohabitant status
   HOMA-%B physical exercise
    sedentary behaviour
Lipid profile TC   amount of sleep
  HDL   caloric intake
  TG   eating behaviour
    maternal attitude towards child weight
Blood pressure SP MAP  
Autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function   HR  
  1. BMI = body mass index; CVD = cardiovascular disease; DP = diastolic blood pressure; Fat% = fat percentage; FFM = fat-free mass; Gluc = fasting plasma glucose; HDL = high density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR = homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; HOMA-%B = homeostasis model assessment β cell function; HR = heart rate; MAP = mean arterial pressure; PEP = pre ejection period; RMSSD = root mean square of successive inter beat intervals; SP = systolic blood pressure; TC = total cholesterol; TG = triglycerides; WC = waist circumference; WHtR = waist-height-ratio