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Table 3 A comparison of the proportion of stunted children among males and females in each of the asset index quintile from 1st(poorest) to 5th(least poor) and in each of the mothers' education groups.

From: Boys are more stunted than girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys

Country (year of study) Sex Percentage stunted by household asset index quintile p-value for test of trend Percentage stunted by mothers education status p-value for test of trend
   1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th   Nil Primary Secondary  
Zimbabwe (1999) M 33.1 28.4 27.3 24.2 24.3 0.007 31.0 31.9 22.7 0.001
  F 30.6 28.9 23.7 23.8 14.5 0.001 36.9 25.9 21.7 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.49 0.90 0.46 0.91 0.01   0.35 0.02 0.67  
Zambia (2001/02)b M 57.0   51.5 47.9 34.1 < 0.001 53.8 52.4 36.1 < 0.001
  F 52.0   46.2 44.5 36.1 < 0.001 52.2 47.5 35.9 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.03   0.04 0.30 0.48   0.64 < 0.01 0.95  
Zambia (1996) M 49.0 51.9 47.0 43.5 28.3 < 0.001 50.0 46.5 33.4 < 0.001
  F 54.1 52.4 44.3 39.3 25.2 < 0.001 51.1 45.4 30.9 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.20 0.83 0.48 0.11 0.28   0.76 0.53 0.37  
Uganda (2000/01) M 46.9 45.9 44.0 30.8 26.7 < 0.001 46.7 39.4 26.7 < 0.001
  F 44.2 41.1 39.5 33.1 22.5 < 0.001 46.7 34.9 25.7 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.38 0.13 0.11 0.45 0.14   0.99 < 0.01 0.77  
Uganda (1995/6) M 44.7 44.9 42.2 35.9 21.6 < 0.001 44.6 38.9 23.2 < 0.001
  F 42.1 38.1 32.4 35.8 16.9 < 0.001 41.6 32.9 19.3 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.40 0.04 < 0.01 1.00 0.08   0.30 < 0.01 0.21  
Tanzania (1999) M 54.7 47.3 37.8 36.9 22.6 < 0.001 44.9 42.4 19.7 < 0.001
  F 53.1 41.9 44.9 32.6 19.0 < 0.001 47.0 38.1 19.9 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.67 0.31 0.23 0.28 0.35   0.59 0.09 0.98  
Tanzania (1996)b M 56.2   47.2 45.5 29.6 < 0.001 52.9 44.3 31.0 < 0.001
  F 50.5   44.0 40.7 30.5 < 0.001 48.1 41.7 24.2 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.01   0.22 0.16 0.74   0.06 0.12 0.22  
Nigeria (2003) M 52.4 51.8 42.8 33.1 24.1 < 0.001 52.7 39.6 21.6 < 0.001
  F 44.2 44.0 36.2 33.7 19.6 < 0.001 45.9 32.1 19.6 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.01 0.04 0.03 0.85 0.11   < 0.01 0.01 0.38  
Nigeria (1999) M 58.2 54.4 47.2 46.8 41.1 0.002 57.4 43.2 43.4 0.002
  F 52.4 53.6 44.4 34.8 36.2 0.001 55.2 36.6 34.6 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.41 0.88 0.66 0.03 0.34   0.68 0.17 0.04  
Namibia (2000) M 30.7 23.0 23.8 20.7 13.9 < 0.001 29.8 26.7 17.0 < 0.001
  F 31.4 24.3 17.2 20.3 10.3 < 0.001 30.7 24.3 14.4 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.87 0.72 0.08 0.89 0.19   0.84 0.38 0.20  
Malawi (2000) M 57.0 56.2 48.8 48.2 34.6 < 0.001 53.7 48.3 28.7 < 0.001
  F 53.2 48.9 47.1 46.4 34.0 < 0.001 52.2 45.1 26.7 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.07 0.01 0.48 0.40 0.78   0.44 < 0.01 0.57  
Kenya (2003) M 39.6 35.7 34.4 25.8 24.0 < 0.001 36.2 35.7 20.8 < 0.005
  F 35.2 29.3 29.1 24.1 11.5 < 0.001 31.8 29.8 13.7 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.18 0.02 0.08 0.58 0.01   0.17 < 0.01 < 0.01  
Kenya (1998) M 46.0 42.3 28.2 31.7 25.5 < 0.001 44.5 37.2 24.0 < 0.001
  F 37.0 35.9 25.3 27.9 15.3 < 0.001 42.9 30.9 16.0 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.03 0.10 0.41 0.31 0.01   0.76 < 0.01 < 0.01  
Ghana (2003) M 39.2 40.6 29.7 36.0 20.7 < 0.001 41.0 29.1 25.1 < 0.001
  F 36.3 33.3 24.1 31.0 15.4 < 0.001 36.3 20.8 21.8 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.52 0.03 0.13 0.20 0.11   0.06 0.01 0.12  
Ghana (1998) M 37.8 35.1 39.4 28.9 13.8 < 0.001 35.8 32.8 22.2 < 0.001
  F 34.4 27.0 27.5 25.2 12.2 < 0.001 31.9 24.5 18.2 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.42 0.01 0.08 0.31 0.60   0.15 0.04 0.12  
Cameroon (1998) M 38.2 35.5 36.5 25.6 14.9 < 0.001 41.3 28.3 20.7 < 0.001
  F 32.0 32.6 22.5 18.9 18.2 < 0.001 35.0 24.4 17.6 < 0.001
Pearson χ 2 test   0.24 0.56 0.01 0.14 0.42   0.13 0.23 0.37  
  1. M = Male; F = Female; bThe asset index in this survey was categorised in quartiles
  2. Pearson chi square test for each male-female comparison and p-values for the test of trend across quintiles or mothers education groups is indicated.