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Table 2 Changes in demographics and outcomes over time in the overall population.

From: Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

  Cohort 1 1993–1996 n = 393 Cohort 2 1996–1999 n = 485 Cohort 3 1999–2002 n = 536
Birthweight (g) 1052 ± 297 1057 ± 277 1028 ± 284
Gestational Age (weeks) 28.3 ± 3.0 28.4 ± 2.9 27.8 ± 2.9 * †
Maternal age (years) 26.5 ± 5.9 26.6 ± 6.3 26.7 ± 6.7
Inborn 91% 88% 87%
Apgar score at 5 minutes (median, interquartile range) 8 (6–9) 8 (7–9) 8 (7–9)
Apgar score at 5 minutes <5 13% 8% 10%
Cesarean delivery 55% 57% 62% *
Antenatal steroids 48% ‡ 66% 65% *
Antenatal antibiotics 34% ‡ 50% 51% *
Preeclampsia 14% ‡ 20% 24% *
HELLP syndrome 5% 4% 3%
Oligohydramnios 14% 11% 13%
Clinical chorioamnionitis 9% 7% 8%
Maternal fever 4% 2% 4%
Prolonged rupture of membranes 22% 22% 21%
Illicit maternal drug use 3% 2% 3%
Maternal diabetes 5% 3.5% 5%
Multiple gestation births 24% 24% 28%
Infertility 10% 7% 10%
Mechanical ventilation 78% 79% 83%
Rescue high frequency ventilation 13% 15% 22% *†
Exogenous surfactant replacement 63% 65% 75% *†
Postnatal dopamine 24% ‡ 31% 35% *
Postnatal dexamethasone 19% ‡ 25% 16% †
  1. *p < .05, Cohort 1v 3
  2. ‡p < .05, Cohort 1 vs 2
  3. †p < .05, Cohort 2 vs 3