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Table 3 Source for questions measuring development, behavior, and parental concerns and anxiety

From: Determinants of response to a parent questionnaire about development and behaviour in 3 year olds: European multicentre study of congenital toxoplasmosis

Outcome Question number in questionnaire* Score range Source
Development and behavior    
Motor development 6 (a–h) 0–16 Griffiths Mental Development Scales [23], Denver Developmental screening test [24]
Speech Development
Language development
10 (a–c)
10 (d–g)
General Language Screen**, parent completed questionnaire for 3 year olds [25]. Validated against four standardised speech and language tests administered by an assessor.
Cognitive ability (non-verbal) 11 (a–g) 0–7 PARCA3** (Parent Report of Children's Abilities) [6] validated for 3 year olds against the MacCarthy Scale
Behavior 13 (a–y) 1–16 'Strengths and difficulties questionnaire' (SDQ), validated in 3 to 16 year olds against clinician assessment of behavior disorder [10,12]. Entire questionnaire, published translations, and scoring algorithm used.
Parental concerns, specialist referral, and parental anxiety    
Parental concerns
a) Learning, behavior, development
b) Speech and language
Adapted from PEDS** (Parent Evaluation of Developmental Status). Predicts risk for developmental and behavioral problems and the need for clinical assessment.[26,27]
Impact of behavior on family 14, 14a–d 0–2 SDQ questionnaire [10,12,28]
Parental anxiety 25,26,27 0–15 Adaptation of rating scales for measuring anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum [29] in relation to antenatal screening (numbered six point horizontal scale with verbal anchors at extremes).
Child completed questions    
Cognitive and fine motor skills
Copying a line, circle, and cross.
Draw a man
12 (a–c)
The child's ability to copy a circle, line and cross was assessed using scoring and normative data available from the Beery Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration [30]. The 'draw a man' was scored using a standardised system and normative data from the Goodenough Draw a Man test [31], using raw scores.
Confounding variables    
Education level achieved 28 0–3 Educational level achieved based on standard categories defined by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for Europe.[32]
  1. * Full version of questionnaire available on
  2. **A subset of the most predictive and least correlated questions were selected.