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Table 1 Observed frequency of factors known to be associated with pathological deviations in fetal growth: All Western Australian births 1998–2002.

From: Optimal fetal growth for the Caucasian singleton and assessment of appropriateness of fetal growth: an analysis of a total population perinatal database

Factor N %
Maternal Smoking 27,326 21.62
Maternal vascular disease 8,334 6.59
Birth defects [29] 7,520 5.95
Maternal (pre-existing or gestational) diabetes 5,051 4.00
Multiple pregnancy 3,991 3.16
TORCH infectionsa 2,945 2.33
High altitudeb 0 0.0
  1. a) Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, CMV, Herpes
  2. b) No population centre in Western Australia is above 300 m. The highest peak (Mt. Meharry) is 1253 m, and like all Western Australian peaks, is situated in an unpopulated area.