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Table 3 Interaction of body size and relative gene methylation in predicting age at pubertal development

From: CYP19A1 promoter methylation in saliva associated with milestones of pubertal timing in urban girls

  Pubic hair (PH2) Breast (B2)
  N HR (95% CI) N HR (95% CI)
CYP19A1 (N = 120)
Normal weight, high methylation 37 1.00 (referent) 37 (referent)
Normal weight, low methylation 39 1.04 (0.63, 1.7) 39 0.82 (0.50, 1.33)
Overweight, high methylation 25 1.05 (0.61, 1.81) 25 1.32 (0.78, 2.23)
Overweight, low methylation 24 1.80 (1.04, 3.12) 24 2.15 (1.23, 3.76)
p for interaction 0.21   0.085
PPARG (N = 124)
Normal weight, low methylation 35 1.00 (referent) 35 1.00 (referent)
Normal weight, high methylation 44 1.10 (0.65, 1.85) 44 1.33 (0.81, 2.18)
Overweight, low methylation 29 1.42 (0.83, 2.42) 29 1.84 (1.08, 3.13)
Overweight, high methylation 21 1.21 (0.67, 2.18) 21 1.94 (1.08, 3.49)
p for interaction 0.52   0.55
  1. Overweight was defined as BMI at or above the 85th percentile for age. ‘Low’ and ‘high’ methylation were defined as below or above the median level of % methylation for each gene locus (89% for CYP19A1, 10.4% for PPARG). Models were adjusted for child race/ethnicity, and caregiver education (< vs. ≥ high school).