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Table 4 Effect of elevated cytokine concentrations on repeated developmental outcomes at 12 and 24 months adjusting for sex, monthly family income, maternal education, and LAZ at 6 months

From: Febrile illness and pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with lower neurodevelopmental scores in Bangladeshi infants living in poverty

  Cognitive composite score Language composite score Motor composite score
Estimate (s.e.) p-value Estimate (s.e.) p-value Estimate (s.e.) p-value
Cytokine       
IL-1β 1.50 (1.72) 0.385 0.41 (2.41) 0.867 -4.88 (1.72) 0.005
IL-6 -2.56 (1.66) 0.124 -2.11 (2.34) 0.370 -4.26 (1.73) 0.016
TNF-α 0.65 (1.71) 0.704 0.99 (2.38) 0.677 -2.07 (1.81) 0.256
IL-4 3.59 (1.64) 0.031 3.21 (2.30) 0.165 0.96 (1.78) 0.592
IL-10 1.75 (1.69) 0.302 -0.85 (2.38) 0.720 -1.50 (1.81) 0.411
  1. Estimated effect for each cytokine expressed as the magnitude change in developmental scores for increment in cytokine category (dichotomized into top quartile and lower three quartiles, reference is the lower three quartiles). Data in parentheses are standard errors (SE) for the corresponding effect.
  2. Each line represents a distinct mixed effects model for each cytokine measure of interest, adjusting for sex, monthly family income, maternal education, and LAZ at 6 months.
  3. Bold text indicates p-value < 0.05.