Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariate analysis using linear mixed effects models for repeated developmental outcomes at 12 and 24 months

From: Febrile illness and pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with lower neurodevelopmental scores in Bangladeshi infants living in poverty

  Cognitive composite score Language composite score Motor composite score
Bayley-III score at 12 months* 100.3 ± 9.4 98.5 ± 14.0 100.7 ± 11.2
Bayley-III score at 24 months* 85.8 ± 8.6 93.0 ± 10.2 96.4 ± 8.5
Predictors Estimate (s.e.) p-value Estimate (s.e.) p-value Estimate (s.e.) p-value
Male sex -0.79 (0.79) 0.318 -2.22 (1.08) 0.040 -2.09 (0.89) 0.019
Birth weight (kg) 3.07 (0.94) 0.001 3.24 (1.31) 0.014 3.33 (1.07) 0.002
LAZ at birth (every unit) 1.07 (0.34) 0.002 1.32 (0.46) 0.005 1.63 (0.38) <0.0001
LAZ at 6 months (every unit) 1.33 (0.38) 0.0005 2.22 (0.51) <0.0001 2.12 (0.42) <0.0001
LAZ at 1 year (every unit) 1.41 (0.36) 0.0001 2.21 (0.49) <0.0001 2.37 (0.39) <0.0001
WAZ at birth (every unit) 1.40 (0.40) 0.0005 1.43 (0.55) 0.010 1.56 (0.45) 0.0006
WAZ at 6 months (every unit) 1.31 (0.36) 0.0003 1.73 (0.50) 0.0006 1.77 (0.41) <0.0001
WAZ at 1 year (every unit) 1.64 (0.35) <0.0001 2.35 (0.48) <0.0001 2.40 (0.39) <0.0001
Maternal BMI (every unit) 0.26 (0.12) 0.038 0.20 (0.17) 0.258 0.41 (0.14) 0.004
Monthly family income (every 1000 taka) 0.38 (0.12) 0.002 0.64 (0.16) 0.0001 0.57 (0.13) <0.0001
Maternal education (years) 0.25 (0.11) 0.022 0.62 (0.15) <0.0001 0.30 (0.13) 0.019
Family size (every member) 0.24 (0.17) 0.162 0.21 (0.23) 0.381 0.32 (0.19) 0.092
Courses of antibiotics -0.06 (0.07) 0.388 -0.18 (0.10) 0.070 -0.25 (0.08) 0.002
Diarrheal illness (every 10 days) 0.36 (0.03) 0.229 0.47 (0.04) 0.251 0.14 (0.03) 0.678
ARI (every 10 days) -0.14 (0.03) 0.629 -0.66 (0.04) 0.095 -0.89 (0.03) 0.007
Febrile illness (every 10 days) -1.18 (0.05) 0.022 -2.40 (0.07) 0.0007 -2.48 (0.06) <0.0001
IL-1β 1.42 (1.67) 0.398 0.75 (2.38) 0.753 -3.81 (1.71) 0.028
IL-6 -2.94 (1.61) 0.070 -2.85 (2.36) 0.229 -4.64 (1.71) 0.007
TNF-α 0.55 (1.68) 0.746 1.06 (2.40) 0.660 -1.70 (1.80) 0.349
IL-4 3.38 (1.64) 0.041 3.28 (2.34) 0.164 1.21 (1.78) 0.498
IL-10 2.07 (1.64) 0.209 -0.09 (2.35) 0.971 -0.82 (1.78) 0.648
  1. Abbreviations: BDT Bangladeshi taka (currency), LAZ length-for-age Z-score, WAZ weight-for-age Z-score, BMI body mass index, ARI acute respiratory infection.
  2. *Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
  3. During first year of life.
  4. Each cytokine is dichotomized into top quartile and lower three quartiles, the reference for each cytokine is the lower three quartiles.
  5. Bold text indicates p-value < 0.05.