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Table 4 Underweight trends by age, province, residence, maternal education and wealth index, KDHS

From: Child undernutrition in Kenya: trend analyses from 1993 to 2008–09

   1993 1998 2003 2008-09    
  Sex n % C.I. n % C.I. n % C.I. n % C.I. Wald F P-value Trend
Total M/F 3,115 19.7 17.9-21.6 3,051 17.6 16.0-19.4 3,148 16.0 14.4-17.8 3,147 15.0 13.0-17.2 11.804 0.001
  M 1,881 21.4 19.1-23.8 1,580 19.4 17.2-21.9 1,880 18.7 16.4-21.2 1,890 16.4 14.1-19.1 7.964 0.005
  F 1,234 17.2 14.6-20.2 1,471 15.6 13.6-18.0 1,269 12.1 10.0-14.5 1,257 12.8 10.3-15.7 7.237 0.007
Age                 
0-5 months M 307 13.4 9.6-18.4 309 9.3 6.1-14.0 381 9.8 6.7-13.8 352 5.1 3.0-8.4 9.369 0.002
  F 178 7.6 4.5-12.5 195 8.9 5.4-14.4 2,001 4.4 2.2-8.6 160 5.8 2.6-12.5 1.781 0.182  
6-11 months M 379 18.0 14.0-22.8 305 16.4 12.3-21.4 370 17.0 13.3-21.6 386 18.2 12.3-26.0 0.016 0.898  
  F 189 14.1 9.4-20.6 242 10.6 6.9-16.2 229 8.4 5.3-13.2 187 6.2 3.2-11.9 4.093 0.043
12-23 months M 674 26.4 22.4-30.9 546 22.1 18.4-26.1 649 22.1 18.0-26.9 597 17.9 14.5-22.0 8.317 0.004
  F 371 17.6 13.5-22.5 504 16.8 13.4-20.8 396 15.0 11.4-19.5 439 11.4 7.5-16.8 1.720 0.190  
24-35 months M 520 22.1 18.4-26.2 420 25.8 21.2-30.9 480 22.2 18.0-27.2 555 20.9 16.1-26.7 0.146 0.702  
  F 496 21.6 17.3-26.6 530 19.3 16.0-23.2 443 14.9 11.3-19.5 470 19.0 15.1-23.8 3.309 0.069  
Province                 
Nairobi M 72 11.5 4.9-24.9 121 13.6 8.2-21.8 114 6.2 3.1-12.2 93 9.2 5.2-15.7 1.198 0.277  
  F 51 2.7 0.4-15.4 72 2.6 0.4-14.7 91 4.5 2.1-9.5 80 7.3 2.7-18.4 1.330 0.252  
Central M 201 16.0 12.1-21.0 138 8.4 4.6-14.7 188 12.3 8.4-17.8 131 12.7 5.7-25.7 0.313 0.576  
  F 165 10.8 6.5-17.2 149 10.8 5.8-19.1 154 9.0 5.3-15.0 115 10.3 5.6-18.1 0.077 0.782  
Coast M 173 29.5 23.0-36.9 134 23.4 15.1-34.5 178 19.9 14.7-26.3 178 23.2 17.3-30.4 1.807 0.181  
  F 110 25.7 17.5-36.2 115 19.4 14.4-25.4 102 13.8 8.2-22.3 109 20.9 14.4-29.5 1.015 0.315  
Eastern M 357 23.7 18.2-30.4 256 22.2 16.9-28.7 326 20.7 15.8-26.8 275 16.9 12.0-23.2 2.548 0.112  
  F 262 24.3 16.9-33.7 270 18.4 14.0-23.8 195 11.4 6.6-19.1 235 14.3 8.6-23.1 3.711 0.056  
Nyanza M 308 21.6 17.4-26.6 315 22.7 17.6-28.8 291 14.6 10.1-20.8 398 14.0 9.9-19.4 6.951 0.009
  F 193 20.9 15.1-28.1 302 20.2 14.8-27.0 214 9.1 5.2-15.5 226 10.8 7.0-16.3 10.394 0.002
Rift-Valley M 432 24.0 18.9-30.1 417 19.0 15.3-23.5 537 23.0 18.0-28.9 570 20.2 15.7-25.5 0.403 0.526  
  F 271 12.8 9.2-17.6 357 13.8 10.1-18.4 347 15.1 10.7-21.0 331 13.6 8.2-21.6 0.075 0.784  
Western M 337 16.4 12.1-22.0 197 20.0 13.2-29.1 245 21.0 14.8-28.9 245 11.1 6.4-18.5 0.768 0.382  
  F 181 14.4 9.8-20.6 207 14.6 9.7-21.5 165 16.4 11.3-23.2 161 10.4 6.7-15.8 0.751 0.388  
Residence                 
Urban M 215 12.2 8.2-17.8 294 12.0 8.0-17.6 335 13.7 9.2-19.9 319 13.0 8.9-18.7 0.144 0.704  
  F 145 8.3 4.1-15.9 256 9.5 6.5-13.5 241 7.4 4.4-12.1 254 8.5 4.6-15.3 0.025 0.874  
Rural M 1,665 22.6 20.1-25.2 1,286 21.2 18.7-23.9 1,544 19.7 17.2-22.6 1,570 17.1 14.5-20.1 8.309 0.004
  F 1,089 18.4 15.5-21.6 1,215 16.9 14.5-19.6 1,028 13.2 10.8-16.0 1,003 13.8 11.1-17.1 6.301 0.012
Maternal Education                 
No education M 331 30.7 25.0-37.2 174 31.1 22.3-41.6 244 32.1 25.1-40.0 197 27.4 21.1-34.8 0.233 0.629  
  F 220 27.0 20.3-35.0 148 27.0 19.5-36.0 168 19.2 13.5-26.7 115 22.2 13.9-33.4 1.540 0.215  
Incomplete primary M 743 26.1 22.7-29.8 596 25.8 21.9-30.2 704 21.5 18.0-25.4 681 19.4 15.5-23.9 7.439 0.006
  F 494 18.6 15.1-22.8 569 17.9 14.2-22.4 476 13.4 10.1-17.5 419 15.3 11.5-20.2 2.466 0.117  
Complete primary M 383 16.8 13.1-21.3 395 13.8 10.7-17.7 538 15.1 11.8-19.2 590 15.5 11.4-20.6 0.034 0.854  
  F 231 11.8 7.9-17.4 384 16.1 12.6-20.4 348 12.8 8.8-18.3 376 14.2 9.8-20.1 0.023 0.880  
Incomplete secondary M 383 10.3 7.3-14.3 152 11.0 6.5-17.9 167 13.0 7.6-21.4 164 11.0 6.4-18.3 0.239 0.625  
  F 243 11.4 7.5-16.9 139 9.4 5.3-15.9 102 4.1 1.3-12.4 115 7.1 3.7-13.3 2.837 0.093  
Secondary + M 42 8.6 2.4-26.4 263 10.5 6.4-16.7 227 8.1 4.9-13.1 258 6.0 3.6-9.8 2.163 0.142  
  F 46 12.8 5.2-28.2 232 5.6 3.3-9.5 175 5.0 2.5-9.6 232 3.9 1.8-8.1 2.529 0.112  
Wealth Index                 
Poorest M 419 31.7 26.3-37.5 398 30.9 25.6-36.7 457 24.1 19.3-29.6 463 24.2 19.3-29.8 5.402 0.020
  F 290 22.6 17.4-28.7 353 22.0 17.6-27.1 277 18.4 13.2-25.1 271 16.9 12.4-22.6 2.718 0.100  
Poorer M 415 25.4 20.9-30.6 317 21.6 17.5-26.3 398 20.7 15.8-26.6 424 19.7 14.6-26.0 2.204 0.138  
  F 248 20.3 15.2-26.5 317 17.6 12.8-23.7 282 12.4 8.5-17.9 251 15.9 10.5-23.3 1.788 0.182  
Middle M 396 17.5 13.9-21.7 308 14.3 10.3-19.5 359 16.9 12.8-22.0 358 10.9 7.3-15.9 3.208 0.074  
  F 237 17.6 12.7-23.9 271 16.0 11.8-21.5 243 14.5 10.4-19.8 246 17.9 11.9-26.0 0.001 0.980  
Richer M 367 19.3 15.2-24.2 289 17.4 12.8-23.2 329 18.1 13.9-23.2 318 13.4 8.2-21.0 1.808 0.179  
  F 241 15.2 10.5-21.5 263 11.9 7.9-17.6 223 7.8 4.3-13.6 248 7.6 3.8-14.7 4.264 0.039
Richest M 285 8.6 5.6-12.9 268 8.1 5.2-12.3 337 11.3 7.2-17.3 326 10.4 6.0-17.4 0.691 0.406  
  F 219 8.4 5.0-13.8 269 8.2 5.4-12.3 244 6.1 3.4-10.8 241 4.9 2.6-9.2 2.238 0.135  
  1. C.I, 95% confidence intervals; Secondary +, complete secondary and higher education; , significant decreasing trend.