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Table 3 Stunting trends by age, province, residence, maternal education and wealth index, KDHS

From: Child undernutrition in Kenya: trend analyses from 1993 to 2008–09

   1993 1998 2003 2008-09    
  Sex n % C.I. n % C.I. n % C.I. n % C.I. Wald F P-value Trend
Total M/F 2,996 39.5 37.3-41.7 2,951 37.1 34.9-39.2 3,033 36.1 33.9-38.4 3,051 36.5 33.6-39.5 2.681 0.102  
  M 1,805 41.7 38.9-44.7 1,511 39.5 36.8-42.2 1,827 38.8 36.0-41.6 1,822 36.9 33.7-40.2 4.634 0.032
  F 1,191 36.0 32.8-39.3 1,440 34.5 31.7-37.5 1,206 32.1 29.0-35.4 1,229 35.9 31.7-40.3 0.089 0.766  
Age                 
0-5 months M 276 20.5 15.4-26.7 286 17.9 13.4-23.6 355 17.8 13.4-23.2 320 14.3 9.0-22.1 2.288 0.131  
  F 167 10.6 6.4-16.9 190 15.7 10.7-22.5 169 14.5 9.5-21.6 149 15.5 8.9-25.8 0.135 0.713  
6-11 months M 372 24.9 20.5-29.9 290 24.5 19.1-30.7 363 21.5 16.9-26.9 372 27.3 21.8-33.6 0.011 0.917  
  F 178 22.9 16.4-31.0 239 18.6 13.7-24.7 223 16.0 11.1-22.4 184 24.3 16.6-34.0 0.108 0.742  
12-23 months M 655 52.9 48.0-57.8 528 50.5 45.9-55.1 642 50.4 45.5-55.3 580 49.7 43.8-55.5 0.488 0.485  
  F 360 31.3 26.1-37.0 489 36.9 32.5-41.7 386 38.7 33.3-44.3 432 40.1 31.5-49.4 4.179 0.041
24-35 months M 502 51.3 46.1-56.5 407 51.0 45.5-56.5 467 52.2 46.8-57.6 550 43.1 37.1-49.4 3.242 0.072  
  F 485 53.1 47.6-58.5 522 46.4 41.6-51.3 428 41.5 35.9-47.4 464 43.1 37.6-48.7 9.880 0.002
Province                 
Nairobi M 65 61.7 46.3-75.1 120 32.3 24.0-41.8 111 29.2 22.0-37.6 85 30.4 20.9-41.9 8.505 0.005
  F 46 18.2 10.7-29.1 66 27.8 15.4-44.9 89 18.4 11.8-27.6 73 30.6 20.8-42.6 0.880 0.351  
Central M 202 45.2 36.0-54.7 127 41.9 33.5-50.8 188 41.2 33.7-49.2 126 37.2 29.0-46.1 1.317 0.253  
  F 160 34.4 27.1-42.4 145 32.4 21.8-45.2 145 31.0 23.9-39.0 110 24.1 15.3-35.8 2.149 0.145  
Coast M 145 42.0 34.4-50.0 128 48.5 36.7-60.5 168 41.0 32.6-50.0 174 39.9 34.3-45.8 0.505 0.478  
  F 96 47.3 37.8-57.0 113 41.0 32.4-50.2 98 41.3 31.4-51.9 108 42.2 28.1-57.7 0.224 0.636  
Eastern M 345 46.3 39.5-53.2 238 42.3 36.5-48.4 319 42.6 35.0-50.5 269 43.1 37.1-49.4 0.457 0.500  
  F 246 45.5 37.5-53.8 261 38.9 32.5-45.7 189 33.7 24.4-44.5 235 39.7 31.9-48.1 1.249 0.265  
Nyanza M 297 40.6 34.7-46.8 310 33.8 28.0-40.1 279 33.2 27.3-39.7 381 30.8 26.1-35.9 5.347 0.022
  F 191 37.9 31.2-45.1 307 33.5 27.4-40.1 204 32.2 25.1-40.2 220 35.0 28.1-42.6 0.262 0.609  
Rift-Valley M 420 39.1 32.9-45.6 393 39.8 36.1-43.7 516 40.3 35.0-45.8 545 41.2 33.5-49.4 0.178 0.673  
  F 269 27.6 22.0-34.0 346 32.9 27.4-38.9 318 32.7 27.0-38.9 326 38.3 27.3-50.6 2.240 0.136  
Western M 331 35.3 29.6-41.5 196 41.3 33.1-50.0 245 38.0 31.2-45.3 242 30.1 25.5-35.2 1.235 0.268  
  F 184 33.6 25.9-42.2 201 33.4 26.9-40.6 165 32.0 24.1-41.1 158 32.9 25.1-41.8 0.038 0.846  
Residence                 
Urban M 199 41.9 32.7-51.6 281 30.4 24.9-36.5 327 35.3 29.4-41.7 307 29.5 23.7-36.0 2.647 0.105  
  F 138 17.7 12.0-25.5 247 27.7 20.9-35.6 223 24.4 19.5-30.0 244 25.7 16.4-37.7 0.452 0.502  
Rural M 1,606 41.7 38.7-44.8 1,230 41.5 38.6-44.5 1,500 39.5 36.4-42.7 1,515 38.4 34.9-42.1 2.300 0.130  
  F 1,052 38.4 35.0-41.9 1,193 36.0 32.9-39.2 983 33.9 30.3-37.6 985 38.4 34.1-43.0 0.057 0.812  
Maternal Education                 
No education M 313 44.0 37.5-50.8 166 49.3 39.4-59.2 233 41.7 32.8-51.2 190 36.8 29.1-45.3 1.975 0.161  
  F 209 42.9 35.3-50.9 144 43.8 34.3-53.8 152 41.3 31.3-52.0 114 44.0 29.9-59.2 0.000 0.998  
Incomplete primary M 716 48.8 44.6-53.0 573 44.7 40.4-49.1 683 42.1 37.9-46.4 664 41.5 36.2-47.1 5.069 0.025
  F 475 41.1 36.0-46.5 561 39.1 34.9-43.5 457 35.9 30.6-41.5 410 40.6 34.6-47.0 0.180 0.671  
Complete primary M 367 40.4 34.9-46.2 380 37.8 32.7-43.2 526 38.6 33.9-43.5 565 40.1 33.9-46.8 0.004 0.951  
  F 228 31.8 25.5-38.8 371 38.0 32.4-43.8 330 35.8 30.5-41.5 369 34.7 28.7-41.2 0.041 0.839  
Incomplete secondary M 367 29.3 23.5-35.9 139 31.9 23.8-41.2 165 39.4 30.2-49.4 156 27.8 20.0-37.3 0.229 0.633  
  F 232 24.3 18.7-31.0 135 27.5 20.5-35.8 96 21.1 13.0-32.3 112 27.4 18.3-38.7 0.043 0.836  
Secondary + M 42 24.0 12.6-40.9 254 28.0 22.7-34.0 219 25.2 19.7-31.5 247 23.1 16.7-31.1 0.700 0.403  
  F 46 31.2 18.1-48.2 228 16.0 11.6-21.7 171 12.8 8.8-18.2 224 29.3 20.9-39.5 1.749 0.187  
Wealth Index                 
Poorest M 405 48.6 42.8-54.5 384 50.6 44.5-56.6 448 45.8 40.9-50.8 450 42.9 36.8-49.3 2.568 0.110  
  F 281 44.0 37.8-50.5 353 44.0 38.1-50.1 261 40.4 33.4-47.9 268 46.6 39.8-53.4 0.066 0.797  
Poorer M 399 43.9 38.3-49.7 303 41.7 36.0-47.5 389 38.5 33.0-44.3 411 44.7 37.6-51.9 0.003 0.960  
  F 243 37.7 31.6-44.2 307 40.9 34.8-47.3 272 35.1 29.2-41.6 247 37.4 28.8-46.9 0.174 0.677  
Middle M 385 40.9 34.9-47.2 288 35.8 29.5-42.6 350 34.5 28.5-40.9 345 32.7 26.9-39.1 3.596 0.058  
  F 227 34.4 28.0-41.5 261 35.6 30.1-41.5 236 34.0 27.5-41.1 241 39.6 31.2-48.7 0.633 0.426  
Richer M 346 41.7 35.9-47.9 279 38.2 32.6-44.1 312 40.1 33.8-46.7 304 28.9 22.5-36.3 5.982 0.015
  F 232 41.8 34.8-49.1 262 31.1 24.7-38.4 211 29.2 22.9-36.5 241 32.5 23.4-43.1 1.999 0.158  
Richest M 270 29.4 23.4-36.2 258 26.0 20.2-32.7 328 32.9 26.5-39.9 312 30.7 23.5-38.9 0.439 0.508  
  F 207 18.4 13.3-25.0 259 16.5 11.7-22.7 227 19.5 15.1-24.8 231 21.6 14.6-30.7 0.713 0.399  
  1. C.I, 95% confidence intervals; Secondary +, complete secondary and/or higher education; , significant decreasing trend; , significant increasing trend.