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Table 2 Distribution of caries severity according to behavioral and environmental factors

From: Feeding and smoking habits as cumulative risk factors for early childhood caries in toddlers, after adjustment for several behavioral determinants: a retrospective study

  Caries severity (ICDAS score)* Ordered logistic regression (n = 2395)
  No caries Low (1–3) Moderate (4) High (5, 6) Total Log likelihood p OR (SE) 95% CI
Feeding practice (first 6 months) -1956.14 <0.01 6.75 (0.40) 6.00–7.58
Exclusive breastfeeding 240 (40.82) 348 (59.18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 588 (24.55)     
Moderate–high mixed feeding 172 (23.40) 563 (76.60) 0 (0) 0 (0) 735 (30.69)     
Low mixed feeding 42 (7.86) 180 (33.71) 311 (58.24) 1 (0.19) 534 (22.30)     
Exclusively artificial formula 5 (0.93) 73 (13.57) 348 (64.68) 112 (20.82) 538 (22.46)     
Sweet dietary habit -2767.84 0.04 1.18 (0.10) 0.99–1.40
≤1/day 366 (21.11) 814 (46.94) 486 (28.03) 68 (3.92) 1734 (72.40)     
≥2/day 93 (14.97) 360 (54.66) 173 (26.17) 35 (5.30) 661 (27.60)     
Smoking habit -1873.25 <0.01 7.14 (0.37) 6.07–8.28
No smoking 397 (20.74) 948 (49.53) 490 (25.60) 79 (4.13) 1914 (79.92)     
During pregnancy 25 (15.53) 53 (32.92) 62 (38.51) 21 (13.04) 161 (6.72)     
Environmental exposure 37 (11.56) 163 (50.94) 107 (33.44) 13 (4.06) 320 (13.36)     
Mean housing cost (SES) -2414.70 <0.01 0.21 (0.21) 0.18–0.24
Low 23 (3.27) 241 (34.23) 359 (50.99) 81 (50.99) 704 (29.39)     
Moderate 130 (12.06) 717 (66.51) 209 (19.39) 22 (2.04) 1078 (45.02)     
High 306 (49.92) 216 (35.24) 91 (14.84) 0 (0) 613 (25.59)     
  1. *N (%); percentages are calculated within each column.
  2. ICDAS, International Caries Detection and Assessment System; OR, odds ratio; SE, standard error; CI, confidence interval.