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Table 3 Course of developmental delay over the 2-year surveillance period in relation to various factors

From: Predictors of severity and outcome of global developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield: a prospective observational study

Factors   DQ difference* P
   Median Range  
Prenatal     
Fecundation in vitro yes 9.2 -4.0 to 23.0 0.687
  no 10.0 -10 to 42.0  
Drug exposure in pregnancy † yes 8.5 -10 to 27.0 0.244
  no 10.0 -5.0 to 42.0  
Tobacco smoke exposure in pregnancy yes 9 -10.0 to 35.0 0.340
  no 10.0 -5.0 to 42.0  
Multiple gestation yes 9.0 -10.0 to 20.0 0.169
  no 10.0 -5.0 to 42.0  
Prematurity yes 7.5 -10.0 to 18.0 0.022
  no 10.0 -4.0 to 42.0  
IUGR yes 7.0 -10.0 to 15.0 0.006
  no 10.0 0.0 to 42.0  
Hypertensive disease of pregnancy ‡ yes 9.5 -10.0 to 38.0 0.904
  no 10.0 -5.0 to 42.0  
Hemorrhagic complications of pregnancy § yes 9.0 -10.0 to 36.0 0.820
  no 10.00 -5.0 to 42.0  
Perinatal     
Cesarean section yes 10.0 -10.0 to 36.0 0.880
  no 10.0 -5.0 to 42.0  
Birth asphyxia yes 9.0 -5.0 to 35.0 0.620
  no 10.0 -10.0 to 42.0  
Neonatal hypoxia || yes 8.0 -10.0 to 15.0 0.024
  no 10.5 0.0 to 42.0  
Neonatal infection yes 9.0 -4.0 to 42.0 0.870
  no 10.0 -10.0 to 35.0  
Other     
Low socio-economic status yes 6.0 -10.0 to 10.0 <0.001
  no 11.0 0.0 to 42.0  
Adherence to recommendations and treatment yes 12.0 0.0 to 42 <0.001
  no 5.0 -10.0 to 12  
  1. *calculated as DQ(2-year visit)–DQ(initial visit).
  2. Between-group differences are calculated with Mann–Whitney U test.
  3. †exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs; ‡ preeclampsia, eclampsia; § placental abruption, placenta previa; || need for ventilatory support due to respiratory distress or severe apneas.
  4. DQ indicates developmental quotient; IUGR intrauterine growth restriction.