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Table 4 Multi-level linear regression models for children’s cognitive scores, Young Lives

From: Factors associated with cognitive achievement in late childhood and adolescence: the Young Lives cohort study of children in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam

  Vietnam 95% CI Ethiopia 95% CI Peru 95% CI India 95% CI
Family Resources         
Mother schooling .059*** .043 .029** .011 .094*** .046 .045*** .029
.075 .046 .142 .062
Father schooling .049*** .033 .022** .006 .133*** .065 .030*** .017
.067 .038 .202 .043
Father schooling missing -.026 -.310 .224* .002 -.002 -.240 --  
.257 .446 .236
Wealth .045*** .022 .039** .010 .074*** .048 .048*** .024
.067 .068 .100 .072
Height-for-age .126*** .086 .099*** .066 .111*** .053 .039** .010
.166 .132 .148 .068
Controls         
Child was male -.100* -.184 .135** .043 -.037 -.145 .192*** .097
-.015 .227 .072 .289
Both parents .061 -.205 .003 -.119 -.126 -.361 .106 -.135
.327 .124 .110 .347
Mother age -.004 -.012 .007* .000 -.004 -.013 -.005 -.014
.003 .014 .005 .004
Birth order -.037 -.082 .054 -.015 .026 -.034 .034 -.021
.008 .123 .087 .088
Urban .076 -.042 .450*** .332 .135* .022 .034 -.098
.193 .568 .249 .166
Same language .338*** .230 .135 -.011 .221* .017 .198** .049
.446 .280 .426 .348
Household size -.059*** -.086 -.009 -.030 -.025* -.047 -.020* -.040
-.033 .013 -.002 -.001
  1. Notes: *p < 0.05 **< .01 ***.001. Multi-level linear models were used to examine change in cognitive development from 8 to 12 years associated with changes in child growth from 8 to 12 years, wealth at 8 years, and parental schooling at 8 years. Factor analysis was used to develop the summary cognitive measure for each round and each country (Tables 1 and 2). Standardized scores were used. Round is treated as level 1 while the individual is treated as level 2.
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