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Table 3 Participant characteristics, Young Lives

From: Factors associated with cognitive achievement in late childhood and adolescence: the Young Lives cohort study of children in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam

  Peru N = 625 Ethiopia N = 867 India N = 936 Vietnam N = 947
  R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3
Sex (% male) 53 -- -- 51 -- -- 49 -- -- 50 -- --
Same language as interviewer (% yes) -- -- 87.0 -- -- 88.2 -- -- 82.9 -- -- 74.4
Both parents living in household (% yes) 77 -- -- 70 -- -- 93 -- -- 94 -- --
Residence (% urban) 74 60 77 35 40 42 24 25 25 19 20 20
Household size 5.7 5.6 5.4 6.5 6.5 6.4 5.5 5.2 6.1 4.9 4.9 5.4
  sd 2.0    2.1    2.2    1.6   
Father schooling (y) 3.9 -- -- 3.7 -- -- 4.6 -- -- 7.6 -- --
  sd .9    4.0    4.8    3.7   
Mother schooling (y) 3.5 -- -- 2.7 -- -- 2.8 -- -- 6.8 -- --
  sd 1.5    3.5    3.9    3.8   
Father schooling (% missing) 20 -- -- 6 -- -- .5 -- -- 3 -- --
Birth order 1.7 -- -- 1.8 -- -- 1.7 -- -- 1.6 -- --
  sd 1.0    .8    1.0    1.0   
Mother age 34.0 -- -- 34.1 -- -- 30.6 -- -- 34.4 -- --
  sd 6.8    7.1    5.6    5.8   
Wealth (deciles) 4.6 5.2 5.9 2.2 3.0 3.5 4.1 4.7 5.2 4.5 5.2 6.0
  sd 2.1    1.8    2.0    2.1   
Height-for-age Z-score -1.42 -1.54 -1.48 -1.48 -1.40 -1.37 -1.57 -1.64 -1.66 -1.47 -1.47 -1.43
  sd 1.03    1.28    1.29    .99   
  1. Notes: Data from a single round only (e.g., maternal and paternal schooling) were found to have little to no variation from round to round and were thus only represented once in subsequent regression models.
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