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Table 2 Factor analysis for summary measures of adolescent reading, writing, and mathematics tests by round and country, Young Lives[44]

From: Factors associated with cognitive achievement in late childhood and adolescence: the Young Lives cohort study of children in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam

Country Measure Factor score Eigen value N (listwise)
Ethiopia: Round 1 Writing .807 1.96 876
  Reading .864   
  Numeracy .747   
Round 2 Writing .825 1.80 787
  Reading .778   
  Math .718   
Round 3 Cloze* .893 1.60 832
  Math .893   
India: Round 1 Writing .867 1.50 938
  Reading .867   
Round 2 PPVT** .721 2.43 886
  Writing .821   
  Reading .741   
  Math .828   
Round 3 PPVT .874 2.36 813
  Cloze .895   
  Math .893   
Peru: Round 1 Reading .893 1.60 638
  Writing .893   
Round 2 Reading .766 2.22 626
  Writing .735   
  Math .697   
  PPVT .781   
Round 3 PPVT .889 2.29 655
  Cloze .902   
  Math .831   
Vietnam: Round 1 Writing .940 1.77 966
  Reading .940   
Round 2 Writing .665   854
  Reading .586   
  PPVT .738 1.90  
  Math .755   
Round 3 PPVT .801 2.08 927
  Cloze .838   
  Math .860   
  1. Notes: *Cloze = reading comprehension test **PPVT = Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Factor analysis was used to develop a summary measure for each round and each country. Different sets of tests were used from year to year and country to country to achieve desirable psychometric properties (high factor loadings, high eigenvalues, and few missing cases). Standardized scores are used. Specific tests and psychometric properties used at each round are reported here.
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