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Table 1 Cases of S. pyogenes endocarditis from 1940 to present for which clinical features are available

From: Two cases and a review of Streptococcus pyogenes endocarditis in children

Casea# [ref] Year Age, Sex Pre-existing cardiac abnormalities Preceding infection Valve(s) affected Complications Emboli Surgery Outcome
1 [12] 1942 2y, M None None Mitral • Splenomegaly Brain, Peripheral, Renal, Spleen No Death
• Bronchopneumonia
• Painful swollen joints
2 [3] 1975 6 m, M None Meningitis Aortic • Microscopic hematuria None No Recovered with cardiomegaly and decreased cardiac function
• LVHb
• Aortic insufficiency and CHFc
• Left sinus of Valsalva aneurysum
3 [13] 1977 14y, M VSDd closed surgically at age 6, aortic stenosis Tonsillitis Aortic • Myocardial abscesses Not reported No Death
• Rupture of sinus of Valsalva into left ventricle
4 [4] 1980 16y, M None Febrile sore throat Aortic • Respiratory distress requiring intubation and ventilation Peripheral, Renal No Recovered
• Renal failure (resolved)
5 [2] 1984 2y, M Pulmonic stenosis None Aortic and Mitral • Pulmonary edema Brain, Spleen No Death
• LVHb
• Aortic insufficiency
• Proliferative glomerulonephritis
6 [6] 1988 4 m, F None Varicella Aortic • Para-aortic abscess None No Death
• CHFc and pulmonary edema
7 [14] 1988 4y, F None None Aortic • Polyarthritis None Yes Recovered with small VSDd
• Aortic regurgitation
• Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm
8 [7] 1992 3y, F None None Mitral • Left-sided hemiparesis Brain, Peripheral No Recovered with left-sided weakness and mitral regurgitation
• Microscopic hematuria  
• Mitral regurgitation
• Pericardial effusion
• Required vasopressors and intubation
9 [5, 15] 1998 14y, M None None Mitral • Right cerebral infarction Brain No Recovered with left-sided weakness
10 [5] 1999 5 m, M None Varicella Mitral • Seizure Peripheral Yes Recovered
• Respiratory failure
• Hypotension
• Mitral regurgitation with anterior leaflet tear
• Aortic root abscess
• Toe autoamputation
11 [16] 2000 4y, M None None Mitral • Mitral regurgitation Left foot Yes Recovered
• Necrosis of 2 toes requiring amputation
12 [16] 2000 2y, M None Varicella Aortic • Aortic root abscess Brain, Peripheral Yes Recovered with left hemiplegia
• Aortic valve perforation
• Focal seizures
13 [8] 2000 3y, M None Varicella Aortic • Joint pain Peripheral Yes Recovered
• Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates
• Elevated LFTse
• Aortic insufficiency
• Left ventricular dilatation leading to CHFc
  1. aIncludes all cases from which clinical features, demographics, and outcome can be extracted. There exists an additional group of cases of possible S. pyogenes endocarditis in children for which sufficient clinical data is not available [1, 1721]. As well, a few cases were excluded due to ambiguity [21, 22].
  2. bLVH = left ventricular hypertrophy.
  3. cCHF = congestive heart failure.
  4. dVSD = ventricular septal defect.
  5. eLFTs = liver function tests.