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Table 2 Association between interaction scores and the odds of an infant being a case (any diagnosis or each subgroup diagnosis)

From: Association between parent-infant interactions in infancy and disruptive behaviour disorders at age seven: a nested, case–control ALSPAC study

Diagnostic outcome Total positive interactions Total negative interactions
  OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Any diagnosis 0.85 (0.74, 0.96) 0.007 0.98 (0.60, 1.51) 0.941
Pervasive development disorder 0.98 (0.73, 1.21) 0.864 0.02 (0.00, 1.41) 0.099
Any emotional disorder 0.82 (0.66, 0.98) 0.029 0.71 (0.21, 1.55) 0.446
Disruptive behaviour disorders 0.84 (0.71, 0.97) 0.020 1.16 (0.70, 1.82) 0.539
Any ADHD disorder 0.87 (0.69, 1.05) 0.159 1.26 (0.65, 2.18) 0.453
Any oppositional-conduct disorder 0.81 (0.65, 0.97) 0.021 0.96 (0.45, 1.64) 0.902
Conduct disorder alone 0.74 (0.40, 1.09) 0.166 1.07 (0.10, 2.46) 0.909
Oppositional defiant and/or DBD NOS 0.81 (0.64, 0.99) 0.035 1.02 (0.45, 1.77) 0.959
Pure oppositional conduct disorder 0.78 (0.60, 0.97) 0.024 1.14 (0.55, 1.95) 0.678
  1. Models are adjusted for potential confounders (total positive interactions adjusted for child’s gender, maternal age at birth, maternal educational attainment and pre-natal anxiety scores; total negative interactions adjusted for maternal age at birth, maternal smoking status, the child’s gender and a social support score) as described in methods. Odds ratio (OR) estimates are presented for a one count per minute increase in each interaction predictor.
  2. Statistically significant associations (p<0.05) are highlighted in bold text.