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Table 1 Incidence rate by gender and seasons of moderate clinical malnutrition (McM), marasmus, moderate wasting, severe wasting, moderate stunting and severe stunting

From: Incidence and course of child malnutrition according to clinical or anthropometrical assessment: a longitudinal study from rural DR Congo

  Age standardized incidence rate per 1 000 child-month, (95% CI)
  Dry season, post-harvest Beginning rain, pre-harvest Rainy season End of rainy season, post-harvest
  Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys
Clinical malnutrition
McM1 28.7 (23.8, 34.7) 41.3 (35.4, 48.2)* 35.5 (30.1, 41.8) 42.3 (36.3, 49.2) 16.1 (13.1, 19.8) 22.2 (18.7, 26.3) 23.0 (19.8, 26.6) 29.5 (25.9, 33.6)
Marasmus2 3.5 (2.0, 6.0) 12.0 (9.0, 16.1)* 3.5 (2.1, 5.9) 7.3 (4.4, 12.3) 9.7 (7.3, 12.8) 8.5 (6.4, 11.4) 6.1 (4.6, 8.1) 7.1 (5.5, 9.2)
Kwashiorkor3 0.5 0.0 0 0.2 0.7 (0.3, 1.9) 1.7 (0.9, 3.2) 1.7 (1.0, 2.9) 0.8 (0.4, 1.7)
Anthropometrical malnutrition
Moderate wasting4 7.9 (5.4, 11.4) 5.6 (3.7, 8.6) 6.5 (4.4, 9.6) 9.3 (6.8, 12.8) 9.9 (7.5, 13.1) 14.8 (11.9, 18.5) 5.7 (4.2, 7.6) 6.9 (5.4, 9.0)
Severe wasting5 0.3 (0.0, 2.0) 1.6 (0.7, 3.6) 0.4 (0.1, 1.9) 0.6 (0.2, 2.2) 1.5 (0.7, 3.0) 3.1 (1.9, 5.1) 1.0 (0.5, 2.0) 1.1 (0.5, 1.9)
Moderate stunting6 32.8 (27.2, 39.7) 27.8 (22.7, 34.0) 16.6 (12.9, 21.4) 13.5 (10.3, 17.7) 22.9 (18.9, 27.7) 21.9 (18.1, 26.5) 22.2 (19.0, 26.0) 15.6 (13.0, 18.7)*
Severe stunting7 2.1 (1.0, 4.5) 3.5 (2.0, 6.2) 2.3 (1.2, 4.5) 2.1 (1.0, 4.2) 1.2 (0.5, 3.0) 2.7 (1.6, 4.7) 1.2 (0.6, 2.4) 2.7 (1.8, 4.2)
  1. The incidence rates are given per 1 000 child months. N = 3 620. *Confidence interval non-overlapping with that of girls.
  2. 1Identified as the presence of wasting of the gluteus muscle at inspection and/or palpation without signs of marasmus or kwashiorkor.
  3. 2Assessed by inspection of abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and by absence or near-absence of palpable gluteus muscle.
  4. 3Assessed using the presence of pitting oedema of the ankles and/or feet as a criterion.
  5. 4Weight-for-length/height Z-score <-2 to >-3.
  6. 5Weight-for-length/height Z-score <-3.
  7. 6Length/height-for-age Z-score <-2 to >-3.