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Table 3 Differences between children with and without birth records in PFK

From: Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study

  Children with birth records in PFK database (N = 1361) Children without birth records in PFK database (N = 898) P
Characteristic    
Male 699 (51.4) 448 (49.9) 0.49
Lives in urban area* 1026 (75.8) 689 (77.0) 0.53
Musculoskeletal disease 166 (12.2) 72 (8.0) 0.002
Congenital anomaly 272 (20.0) 84 (9.4) <.0001
Person-months at end of study 29 (17, 40) 26 (14, 37) 0.0002
Age    
0-6 months 421 (30.9) 120 (13.4) <.0001
6-12 months 268 (19.7) 131 (14.6)  
12-18 months 248 (18.2) 180 (20.0)  
18-24 months 164 (12.1) 132 (14.7)  
24-30 months 105 (7.7) 113 (12.6)  
> 30 months 155 (11.4) 222 (24.7)  
Enrollment continuity at end of study)    
Continuous enrollment ≥ 24 months 488 (35.9) 302 (33.6) 0.10
Continuous enrollment < 24 months 403 (29.6) 283 (31.5)  
Discontinuous enrollment ≥ 24 months 351 (25.8) 211 (23.5)  
Discontinuous enrollment < 24 months 119 (8.7) 102 (11.4)  
Enrollment breaks over the course of the study    
No break in enrollment 891 (65.5) 585 (65.1) 0.41
One break 331 (24.3) 220 (24.5)  
More than one break (range = 2-5 breaks) 139 (10.2) 93 (10.4)  
Median family income in patient's zipcode*    
$20417-$42043 707 (52.0) 413 (46.0) 0.006
$42297-$94873 654 (48.0) 485 (54.0)  
Percent of adults with a bachelor's degree or higher in patient's zipcode*    
0.0-14.0% 686 (50.4) 405 (45.1) 0.01
14.2-62.2% 675 (49.6) 493 (54.9)  
Vaccination provided 106 (7.8) 109 (12.1) 0.0006
Injury type    
Fracture 315 (23.1) 176 (19.6) 0.046
Dislocation 34 (2.5) 32 (3.6) 0.14
Burn 70 (5.1) 47 (5.2) 0.92
Retinal hemorrhage 41 (3.0) 23 (2.6) 0.53
Intracranial 87 (6.4) 41 (4.6) 0.07
Abdominal thoracic 21 (1.5) 6 (0.7) 0.06
Open wound 104 (7.6) 75 (8.4) 0.54
Blood vessel 5 (0.4) 6 (0.7) 0.31
Superficial Injury 114 (8.4) 64 (7.1) 0.28
Contusions 269 (19.8) 163 (18.2) 0.34
Crush 3 (0.2) 2 (0.2) 1
Spinal cord 7 (0.5) 6 (0.7) 0.78
Location of injury    
Head/neck 275 (20.2) 136 (15.1) 0.002
Face 64 (4.7) 32 (3.6) 0.19
Chest 64 (4.7) 30 (3.3) 0.11
Abdomen and pelvic contents 49 (3.6) 24 (2.7) 0.22
Extremities or pelvic girdle 337 (24.8) 231 (25.7) 0.61
External 548 (40.3) 347 (38.6) 0.44
Mechanism of injury    
Cut/pierce 6 (0.4) 5 (0.6) 0.7
Drowning/submersion 2 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 1
Fall 223 (16.4) 138 (15.4) 0.52
Fire/Burn 47 (3.5) 28 (3.1) 0.66
Natural/environmental 12 (0.9) 4 (0.5) 0.23
Overexertion 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 1
Poisoning 17 (1.3) 7 (0.8) 0.29
Struck by/against 63 (4.6) 32 (3.6) 0.22
Suffocation 2 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 1
Number of injuries    
0 473 (34.8) 335 (37.3) 0.048
1 297 (21.8) 217 (24.2)  
2 225 (16.5) 143 (15.9)  
3 94 (6.9) 69 (7.7)  
4 75 (5.5) 42 (4.7)  
≥5 197 (14.5) 92 (10.2)  
Injury Severity (TMPM-ICD9 probability of death)** 0.031 (0.011, 0.095) 0.021 (0.009, 0.082) <.0001
  1. Characteristics shown were determined at the first event. *Based on the child's zip code at their first event and on data from the 2000 US Census. **TMPM-ICD9 = trauma mortality prediction model. Data are shown as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables and medians and 25th and 75th percentiles for continuous variables. PFK = Partners for Kids Medicaid accountable care organization.