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Table 1 Demographics, comorbidities, and injury characteristics at first event in children with and without recurrent events

From: Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic (Total N = 1361) No suspected recurrent NAT events, (N = 988) Suspected recurrent NAT events, (N = 373) Hazard ratio (95% CI) P***
Male 492 (49.8) 207 (55.5) 1.15 0.97 1.36 0.10
Lives in urban area* 760 (77.6) 266 (71.3) 0.71 0.59 0.86 <0.001
Age in months       
0-6 298 (30.2) 123 (33.0) ref    0.03
6-12 187 (18.9) 81 (21.7) 0.88 0.68 1.15  
12-18 168 (17.0) 80 (21.5) 1.10 0.85 1.41  
18-24 120 (12.2) 44 (11.8) 1.06 0.79 1.41  
24-30 77 (7.8) 28 (7.5) 1.04 0.75 1.45  
>30 138 (14.0) 17 (4.6) 0.62 0.42 0.90  
Injury type, N (%)       
Fracture 234 (23.7) 81 (21.7) 0.903 0.722 1.13 0.37
Dislocation 19 (1.9) 15 (4.0) 1.751 1.17 2.621 0.007
Burn 49 (5.0) 21 (5.6) 0.985 0.676 1.435 0.94
Retinal hemorrhage 30 (3.0) 11 (3.0) 1.575 0.838 2.96 0.16
Intracranial 67 (6.8) 20 (5.4) 0.938 0.617 1.426 0.76
Abdominal thoracic 17 (1.7) 4 (1.1) 0.707 0.302 1.655 0.42
Open wound 59 (6.0) 45 (12.1) 1.564 1.243 1.968 0.001
Superficial Injuries 55 (5.6) 59 (15.8) 1.616 1.266 2.063 <0.001
Contusions 176 (17.8) 93 (24.9) 1.195 0.972 1.469 0.09
Spinal cord 6 (0.6) 1 (0.3) 0.899 0.223 3.614 0.88
Location of injury, N (%)       
Head/neck 192 (19.4) 83 (22.3) 0.996 0.806 1.232 0.97
Face 40 (4.1) 24 (6.4) 1.468 1.051 2.051 0.02
Chest 52 (5.3) 12 (3.2) 0.723 0.448 1.166 0.18
Abdomen and pelvic contents 40 (4.1) 9 (2.4) 0.748 0.452 1.24 0.26
Extremities or pelvic girdle 238 (24.1) 99 (26.5) 1.149 0.948 1.391 0.16
External 370 (37.5) 178 (47.7) 1.221 1.013 1.472 0.04
Mechanism of injury, N (%)       
Cut/pierce 4 (0.4) 2 (0.5) 1.335 0.673 2.648 0.41
Fall 160 (16.2) 63 (16.9) 1.238 0.992 1.543 0.06
Fire/Burn 35 (3.5) 12 (3.2) 0.958 0.618 1.485 0.85
Natural/environmental 9 (0.9) 3 (0.8) 0.829 0.361 1.906 0.66
Poisoning 14 (1.3) 3 (0.8) 0.95 0.33 2.733 0.92
Struck by/against 43 (4.4) 20 (5.4) 1.021 0.704 1.482 0.91
Number of injuries, N (%)       
0 387 (39.2) 86 (23.1) ref    <0.001
1 182 (18.4) 115 (30.8) 1.803 1.435 2.265  
2 140 (14.2) 85 (22.8) 1.594 1.231 2.063  
3 63 (6.4) 31 (8.3) 1.378 0.953 1.992  
4 59 (6.0) 16 (4.3) 1.103 0.689 1.766  
≥5 157 (15.9) 40 (10.7) 1.161 0.841 1.601  
Injury Severity (TMPM-ICD9 probability of death)**, median (IQR) 0.046 (0.013, 0.107) 0.023 (0.010, 0.069) 0.478 0.104 2.194 0.34
  1. Characteristics shown were determined at the first event. *Based on the child's zip code at their first event and on data from the 2000 Census. **TMPM-ICD9 = trauma mortality prediction model, Group without recurrent event(s): N = 502, Group with recurrent event(s): N = 193. ***P value in a univariable Cox proportional hazards Prentice, Williams and Peterson gap time (PWP-GT) model for time between events. The first four recurrent events were included in the models. Values of the risk factors at the previous event were the independent variables in this model, with the exception of the zip code based variables, which were determined only at the first event.