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Table 3 Multinomial regression analyses of sleep variables associated with BMI categories §

From: Sleep and body mass index in adolescence: results from a large population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16 to 19 years

  Short sleep weekdays# Short sleep weekends# Insomnia OSA symptoms
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Unadjusted analyses
 Obesity 2.11 1.62-2.74 1.69 1.10-2.60 1.73 1.32-2.28 4.39 3.00-6.44
 Overweight 1.47 1.26-1.72 1.31 1.00-1.71 1.36 1.16-1.59 2.18 1.66-2.86
 Underweight 2.41 1.65-3.52 0.88 0.37-2.06 1.65 1.09-2.51 0.49 0.12-2.02
Adj. for demographics (age, gender, parental education and family income)
 Obesity 2.11 1.61-2.75 1.64 1.06-2.55 1.75 1.32-2.31 4.28 2.91-6.29
 Overweight 1.51 1.29-1.77 1.33 1.02-1.75 1.46 1.24-1.71 2.10 1.59-2.77
 Underweight 2.22 1.51-3.27 0.84 0.36-1.99 1.49 0.97-2.27 0.53 0.13-2.15
Adj. for demographics + physical activity
 Obesity 2.04 1.56-2.68 1.79 1.15-2.78 1.73 1.30-2.30 4.25 2.86-6.30
 Overweight 1.49 1.27-1.75 1.31 0.99-1.73 1.44 1.22-1.69 2.10 1.58-2.79
 Underweight 2.12 1.43-3.14 0.89 0.37-2.10 1.34 0.97-2.09 0.26 0.04-1.87
Adj. for demographics + depression
 Obesity 1.60 1.21-2.12 1.37 0.88-2.14 1.25 0.93-1.69 3.53 2.37-5.25
 Overweight 1.34 1.14-1.58 1.21 0.91-1.59 1.26 1.07-1.50 1.96 1.48-2.60
 Underweight 1.87 1.25-2.81 0.72 0.30-1.70 1.12 0.71-1.75 0.46 0.1-13.88
Adj. for demographics, physical activity and depression
 Obesity 1.58 1.19-2.09 1.45 0.92-2.28 1.25 0.93-1.69 3.69 2.47-5.51
 Overweight 1.33 1.12-1.57 1.20 0.90-1.59 1.24 1.05-1.47 1.98 1.49-2.64
 Underweight 1.78 1.18-2.68 0.75 0.32-1.80 1.06 0.67-1.67 0.23 0.03-1.69
Adj. for demographics, physical activity, depression and two other sleep variables (sleep duration, insomnia or OSA symptoms)$
 Obesity 1.51 1.10-2.08 1.42 0.87-2.31 1.14 0.83-1.58 3.52 2.35-5.26
 Overweight 1.23 1.02-1.47 1.16 0.85-1.58 1.20 0.99-1.44 1.90 1.42-2.53
 Underweight 1.88 1.20-2.95 0.91 0.38-2.21 0.98 0.60-1.59 0.22 0.03-1.60
  1. §Reference: Normal weight range.
  2. #Compared to normal sleep duration (>5 hours to < 8 hours).
  3. $For short sleep, the effect was adjusted additionally for insomnia and OSA symptoms; for insomnia, the effect was additionally adjusted for sleep duration and OSA etc.
  4. Bold font denotes statistical significant OR at p < .05.