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Table 1 Longitudinal models of maternal depressive symptoms on child height and BMI between 9 months and 6 years

From: Early maternal depressive symptoms and child growth trajectories: a longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative US birth cohort

  Height (cm) BMI (kg/m2)
  a. Partially adjusted1 b. Fully adjusted2 c. Partially adjusted1 d. Fully adjusted2
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Model 1: Main effects models (Linear shift in maternal depression)
Maternal depressive symptoms     
 None Reference    
 Mild −0.20 (−0.41, 0.008)^ −0.08 (−0.27, 0.11) 0.14 (0.02, 0.26)* 0.10 (−0.01, 0.22)
 Moderate/severe −0.43 (−0.66, −0.19)*** −0.26 (−0.48, −0.05)* 0.08 (−0.05, 0.21) −0.02 (−0.16, 0.11)
Model 2: Interaction models (Interactions of maternal depressive symptoms and child age terms)
Maternal depressive symptoms     
 None Reference    
 Mild −0.22 (−0.44, 0.005)^ −0.11 (−0.31, 0.09) −0.07 (−0.39, 0.26) −0.09 (−0.42, 0.25)
 Moderate/severe −0.45 (−0.69, −0.30)*** −0.23 (−0.46, −0.50)* 0.17 (−0.19, 0.53) 0.05 (−0.32, 0.42)
Maternal symptoms x child ageij     
 None Reference    
 Mild 0.02 (−0.16, 0.20) 0.002 (−0.01, 002) 0.13 (−0.12, 0.37) 0.01 (−0.01, 0.03)
 Moderate/severe −0.01 (−0.21, 0.19) −0.003 (−0.02, 0.01) −0.05 (−0.32, 0.22) −0.002 (−0.03, 0.02)
Maternal symptoms x child ageij 2     
 None Reference    
 Mild −0.002 (−0.04, 0.04) <−0.0001 (−0.0003, 0.0003) −0.01 (−0.05, 0.03) −0.0001 (−0.0004, 0.0002)
 Moderate/severe 0.01 (−0.03, 0.06) 0.0001 (−0.0002, 0.0004) 0.005 (−0.04, 0.05) 0.00002 (−0.0003, 0.0003)
  1. Beta coefficients reported in this analysis have not been standardized.
  2. 1Random effects (intercept + slope) models adjusted for child sex and age (entered at 9 months).
  3. 2Random effects (intercept + slope) model adjusted for child sex and age (centered at 9 months) and baseline characteristics: maternal age, education, employment, home ownership, race, pre-pregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain, smoking status, and child health status, ever breast fed, gestational age, and birthweight.
  4. *p-value <0.05; **p-value <0.01; ***p-value <0.001.
  5. ^p-value <0.10.