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Table 5 Comparison of mothers and fathers of children with perinatal stroke on outcome variables

From: Parent and family impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke

  Median [95% CI]   
  Mothers Fathers Z(p-value) Effect size (r)
Anxiety & depression     
 HADS-A 7.00 [6.00-8.00] 5.00 [3.50-8.00] -1.99 (.023)* -.27
 HADS-D 2.00 [2.00-4.49] 2.00 [1.00-5.00] -1.14 (.13) -.15
Perceived stress     
 PSS 22.50 [18.00-24.00] 20.00 [16.00-26.50] -1.11 (.45) -.15
Marital strain     
 KMSSa 18.00 [17.00-19.00] 18.00 [16.00-19.00] -0.75 (.23) -.10
 DASa 112.50 [105.00-121.00] 112.00 [104.00-127.00] -0.20 (.42) -.03
Parent & family adaptation     
PedsQL FIMa     
 Totala 71.87 [59.37-84.72] 79.86 [70.84-86.11] -.80 (.21) -.11
 Parent HRQLa 70.00 [60.00-90.00] 81.25 [74.00-90.00] -1.09 (.14) -.15
 Family Functioninga 71.88 [56.25-89.06] 75.00 [65.62-90.63] -0.16 (.44) -.02
POM     
 Total 34.50 [27.50-47.00] 28.00 [19.00-36.49] -1.59 (.06) -.21
 Psychosocial Impact 20.50 [16.50-29.50] 18.50 [13.00-24.00] -1.17 (.12) -.16
 Guilt 7.00 [4.00-9.00] 4.00 [1.50-5.00] -2.33 (.01)* -.31
 Blame 5.50 [4.00-7.50] 6.00 [4.00-8.49] -0.37 (.36) -.05
  1. n = 28 for each group. Higher scores indicate poorer functioning unless specified otherwise. A r of |.1| is a small effect, |.3| is a medium effect, and |.5| is a large effect [51].
  2. *p-value (one-way) is significant correcting for family-wise error rate (p < .025 for HADS, p < .025 for measures of marital strain, p < .017 for PedsQL FIM, and p < .0125 for POM).
  3. aHigher scores indicate better functioning.