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Table 2 Comparison of mothers of children with typical development, mild conditions, and moderate/severe conditions on outcome variables

From: Parent and family impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke

  Median [95% CI]   
  Typical dev. condition Mild condition Moderate/ severe condition X 2(p-value) Effect size (η 2)
Anxiety & depression      
 HADS-A 7.00 [5.50-8.00] 7.00 [4.00-8.00] 8.00 [5.00-10.00] 2.11 (.35) .02
 HADS-D 3.00 [2.00-4.00] 2.00 [1.00-3.00] 5.00 [4.00-9.00] 12.43 (.002)* .11
Perceived stress      
 PSS 22.50 [19.00-25.00] 21.00 [15.51-24.00] 26.00 [20.00-30.00] 4.93 (.08) .04
Marital strain      
 KMSSa,b 18.00 [17.00-18.00] 18.00 [17.00-21.00] 15.00 [12.00-18.00] 8.12 (.017)* .09
 DASa,b 115.00 [106.01-120.00] 113.00 [105.00-122.00] 105.00 [88.00-116.00] 2.76 (.25) .05
Parent & family adaptation      
PedsQL FIMa      
 Totala 78.13 [70.83-85.42] 79.86 [71.53-88.19] 53.47 [38.89-58.33] 24.38 (<.001)* .22
 Parent HRQLa 72.50 [67.50-80.00] 81.25 [72.50-90.00] 60.00 [49.37-65.00] 12.08 (.002)* .11
 Family Functioninga 84.38 [70.31-90.63] 87.50 [65.63-100.00] 46.87 [34.38-62.42] 25.77 (<.001)* .23
  1. Note. n = 56 for typical development, n = 29 for mild condition, and n = 27 for moderate/severe condition. Higher scores indicate poorer functioning unless specified otherwise. A η 2 of .01 is a small effect, .06 is a medium effect, and .14 is a large effect [50].
  2. *p-value is significant correcting for family-wise error rate (p < .025 for HADS, p < .025 for measures of marital strain, and p < .017 for PedsQL FIM).
  3. aHigher scores indicate better functioning. b n = 45 for typical development, n = 27 for mild, and n = 24 for moderate/severe.