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Table 2 Differences in cardiovascular risk factors in obese children and adolescents after 16-week follow-up

From: Mediterranean-style diet reduces metabolic syndrome components in obese children and adolescents with obesity

  Mediterrean style diet Standard diet
  Baseline mean ± SD 16-week mean ± SD Δ baseline versus 16-week p* Baseline mean ± SD 16-week mean ± SD Δ baseline versus 16-week p*
    Mean difference 95% CI     Mean difference 95% CI  
Weight (Kg) 64.0 ± 19.1 63.5 ± 18.6 0.5 -1.8, 0.7 0.369 62.2 ± 20.9 63.9 ± 19.8 -1.7 -2.9, -0.5 0.007
Height (m) 1.51 ± 0.12 1.54 ± 0.11 0.03 0.01, 0.04 0.001 1.50 ± 0.14 1.52 ± 0.12 0.02 0.01, 0.03 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 27.3 ± 3.9 26.2 ± 3.9 -1.10 -1.4, -0.7 0.001 26.7 ± 4.7 26.8 ± 4.5 0.1 -0.2, 0.6 0.374
Waist (cm) 89.0 ± 12.6 88.8 ± 12.7 -0.2 -2.5, 2.0 0.826 84.8 ± 12.2 87.3 ± 11.7 2.5 -0.2, 5.2 0.072
Hip (cm) 97.0 ± 10.9 96.1 ± 10.8 -0.9 -2.8, 0.9 0.303 94.2 ± 12.2 95.2 ± 11.4 1.0 -1.0, 3.0 0.308
Waist/hip ratio 0.913 ± 0.05 0.918 ± 0.06 0.005 -0.015, 0.024 0.600 0.89 ± 0.06 0.91 ± 0.06 0.02 -0.01, 0.04 0.325
MAC (cm) 29.4 ± 4.2 29.7 ± 4.6 0.3 -0.2, 0.9 0.222 28.2 ± 4.7 29.9 ± 3.5 1.7 0.5, 2.7 0.004
TSF (mm) 27.0 ± 7.0 25.5 ± 4.8 -1.5 -3.0, 0.04 0.056 27.9 ± 4.6 28.6 ± 5.0 0.7 -1.2, 2.7 0.444
Fat mass (kg) 26.0 ± 11.2 23.4 ± 10.6 -2.6 -3.4, -1.8 0.001 24.2 ± 9.5 24.5 ± 8.46 0.3 -0.7, 1.3 0.575
Lean mass (kg) 38.0 ± 10.9 40.1 ± 10.9 2.1 0.8, 3.2 0.001 38.0 ± 13.2 39.5 ± 14.0 1.5 0.2, 2.6 0.018
SBP (mmHg) 103.0 ± 11.9 100.3 ± 7.94 -2.7 -7.2, 1.8 0.229 101.2 ± 13.4 100.6 ± 10.7 -0.6 -4.2, 3.0 0.720
DBP (mmHg) 64.0 ± 7.7 62.3 ± 8.6 1.7 -6.0, 2.6 0.435 61.7 ± 9.6 63.2 ± 7.6 1.5 -1.6, 4.6 0.329
Glucose (mg/dL) 98.7 ± 5.5 88.2 ± 3.81 -10.5 -13.1, -7.7 0.001 98.4 ± 5.8 93.5 ± 5.73 -4.9 -8.1, -1.7 0.004
TC (mg/dL) 177.3 ± 24.6 146.3 ± 21.4 -31.0 -42.5, -19.6 0.001 170.2 ± 34.6 166.8 ± 32.3 -3.4 -16.5, 9.7 0.599
TG (mg/dL) 214.4 ± 92.9 124.4 ± 31.1 -90.0 -126.5, -53.4 0.001 197.9 ± 107.3 167.4 ± 78.5 -30.5 -61.9, 1.03 0.057
HDL-C (mg/dL) 34.7 ± 6.3 43.7 ± 9.6 9.0 4.0, 14.0 0.001 31.9 ± 8.5 34.8 ± 12.0 2.9 -2.2, 7.9 0.265
LDL-C (mg/dL) 99.7 ± 26.8 77.7 ± 18.6 -22.0 -33.8, -10.3 0.001 98.7 ± 26.4 98.6 ± 29.7 -0.1 -13.0, 12.7 0.981
  n (%) n (%)    ** n (%) n (%)    **
Glucose >100 mg/dL 8 (33.8) 0 - - 0.007 14 (56) 5 (20) - - 0.012
TG >150 mg/dL 21 (88) 2 (8) - - 0.001 13 (52) 14 (56) - - 0.999
TC > 200 mg/dL 5 (21) 0 - - 0.025 5 (20) 5 (20) - - 0.999
HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dL 20 (83) 7 (29.2) - - 0.002 21 (84) 20 (80) - - 0.999
LDL-C >100 mg/dL 10 (42) 4 (17) - - 0.058 10 (40) 10 (40) - - 0.999
MetS 16 (66.7) 5 (20.8) - - 0.003 10 (40.0) 11 (44.0) - - 0.999
  1. MAC. media arm circumference. SBP = systolic blood pressure, DBP = diastolic blood pressure, TC = total cholesterol, TG = triglycerides, HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CI. Confidence Intervals *Paired Student’s t-test and **McNemar’s test was used for comparison baseline versus 16-week Δ change magnitude.