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Table 2 Key risk factors for problem behaviours at age eight

From: Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood

Variable Externalizing behaviours Internalizing behaviours
  Adjusted odds ratio (95% C.I.) p-value Adjusted odds ratio (95% C.I.) p-value
Male gender 2.64 (1.50, 4.65) 0.001 1.70 (1.02, 2.82) 0.042
Current demographic risk 1.63 (0.86, 3.10) 0.134   
Past demographic risk    2.82 (1.27, 6.26) 0.011
Current maternal mental health risk    1.96 (1.15, 3.36) 0.014
Past maternal mental health risk 2.02 (1.02, 4.01) 0.044   
Absence of positive parenting interactions    1.92 (1.12, 3.30) 0.017
Past low parental sense of competence 2.83 (1.58, 5.06) <0.001   
Past hostile parenting style 2.24 (1.12, 4.50) 0.023   
Past low parenting morale    2.62 (1.43, 4.82) 0.002
Past unhappy events for child 2.14 (1.09, 4.19) 0.027   
Developmental referral history 1.99 (1.04, 3.83) 0.039   
Poor school performance 2.07 (1.16, 3.69) 0.014   
  1. Note. Internalizing and externalizing behaviours defined by behaviour scales previously used in the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) with the cut-offs made at the 80th percentile (coding: Less than 80th percentile vs. 80th percentile or better).
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