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Table 1 Characteristics of mothers and children who participated in the CPC-8 study

From: Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood

Characteristic Total sample (N = 450) n (%)
Demographics
Maternal age*  
 Mean (SD) 38.42 (4.478)
Marital status*  
 Married/common-law 421 (93.6)
 Single, divorced, or separated 29 (6.4)
Education*  
 Completed post-secondary 334 (74.2)
 Less than post-secondary 116 (25.8)
Household income*  
 Less than $60,000 52 (11.6)
 $60,000 or more 397 (88.4)
Ethnicity**  
 White/Caucasian 394 (87.6)
 Other 56 (12.4)
Number of children in household*  
 One to two children 298 (66.2)
 Three or more children 152 (33.8)
History of demographic risk: less than 25 years old, less than $40,000 income, single, high school education or less, or moved 2 or more times in the past 2 years**  
 Yes 55 (12.2)
 No 395 (87.8)
Current demographic risk: less than $40,000 income, single, or food/expense instability*  
 Yes 110 (24.5)
 No 339 (75.5)
Child Characteristics
Gender**  
 Girl 228 (52.2)
 Boy 209 (47.8)
Preterm infant**  
 Yes 22 (5.0)
 No 414 (95.0)
General health*  
 Excellent, very good, or good 441 (98.2)
 Fair or poor 8 (1.8)
BMI status*  
 Underweight 39 (9.7)
 Healthy 297 (74.1)
 Overweight/obese 65 (16.2)
Number of health problems as told by health professional*  
 No health problems 278 (61.8)
 At least one health problem 172 (38.2)
High externalizing behaviour (scored ≥ 80th percentile)*  
 Yes 114 (25.6)
 No 332 (74.4)
High internalizing behaviour (scored ≥ 80th percentile)*  
 Yes 132 (29.5)
 No 315 (70.5)
Low prosocial behaviour (scored ≤ 20th percentile)*  
 Yes 116 (25.9)
 No 332 (74.1)
Referral to at least one of early intervention program, speech or language pathologist, developmental pediatrician, psychologist, physiotherapist, or dietician at 3 years or 5 years**  
 Yes 123 (27.3)
 No 327 (72.7)
PEDS Path A at 3 years or 5 years of age**  
 Yes 83 (21.8)
 No 297 (78.2)
Maternal Characteristics
History of mental health risk: abuse (prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, 6–8 weeks postpartum), depression (prior to pregnancy), suicide (prior to pregnancy), poor social support (first trimester), poor network orientation (first trimester), poor emotional health (first trimester)**  
 Yes 211 (46.9)
 No 239 (53.1)
Mental health risk at CPC3Year: abuse, depression (6+ months postpartum), poor social support, poor emotional health**  
 Yes 81 (18.0)
 No 369 (82.0)
Current mental health risk: low social support, poor emotional health, or unstable spouse/partner events in the past 12 months*  
 Yes 138 (31.2)
 No 305 (68.8)
Low positive parenting interaction (scored ≤ 20th percentile)*  
 Yes 128 (28.4)
 No 322 (71.6)
Low social support (scored <15th percentile)*  
 Yes 48 (10.7)
 No 399 (89.3)
Emotional health in past 6 months*  
 Excellent, very good, or good 382 (84.9)
 Fair or poor 68 (15.1)
Unstable events that occurred during the past 12 months to mother or spouse/partner*  
 None to two events 370 (83.5)
 Three or more events 73 (16.5)
  1. *variable assessed at current (middle childhood) assessment time point.
  2. **variable assessed at previous time points.
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