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Table 2 Comparison of inclusion and exclusion criteria[11, 1517]

From: A prospective observational study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of clinical decision rules for children presenting to emergency departments after head injuries (protocol): the Australasian Paediatric Head Injury Rules Study (APHIRST)

  Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
CATCH All of the following: Any of:
• Blunt trauma to head resulting in witnessed LOC/disorientation, definite amnesia, persistent vomiting (>1 episode), persistent irritability (in children <2 yrs) • Obvious penetrating skull injury
• Obvious depressed fracture
• Acute focal neurologic deficit
• Chronic generalized developmental delay
• Head injury secondary to suspected child abuse
• Initial GCS in ED ≥13 as determined by treating physician • Returning for reassessment of previously treated head injury
• Injury within the past 24 hours. • Patients who were pregnant
CHALICE Any history or signs of injury to the head. Refusal to consent
PECARN Present within 24 hours of head injury. Any of:
• Trivial head injury (defined by ground level fall, walking/running into stationary object, no signs or symptoms of head trauma except scalp abrasions and lacerations).
• Penetrating trauma
• Known brain tumour
• Pre-existing neurological disorder complicating assessment
• Neuro-imaging at another hospital before transfer
• Patient with ventricular shunt*
• Patient with bleeding disorder*
   • GCS < 14*
  1. Reproduced from Lyttle M, et al.[15] Copyright 2012, with permission from BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
  2. CATCH Canadian Assessment of Tomography for Childhood Head Injury.
  3. CHALICE Children’s Head Injury Algorithm for the Prediction of Important Clinical Events
  4. PECARN Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network.
  5. GCS Glasgow Coma Score.
  6. LOC Loss of consciousness.
  7. ED emergency department.
  8. *enrolled but being analysed separately, not used in clinical decision rule derivation.