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Table 1 Classification of fetal death relative to infant death among reported live births living less than 24 hours and fetal deaths, North Carolina, 1995-2000

From: Variation in classification of live birth with newborn period death versus fetal death at the local level may impact reported infant mortality rate

Characteristic/factor Bivariate associations Multivariable associations‡
  Fetal death Infant death      
  Total* N % N % Odds ratio† Total Odds ratio† 95% C.I. § P
value
Maternal race/ethnicity           
 Other/Unknown 258 161 62.4 97 37.6 1.53 240 1.28 0.86 – 1.90 .23
 White 3688 2511 68.1 1177 31.9 1.19 3511 1.13 0.87 – 1.47 .35
 Black 3616 2293 63.4 1323 36.6 1.47 3488 1.30 1.00 – 1.07 .050
 Latino 482 346 71.8 136 28.2 1 406 1   
Birth weight (grams)           
 < 500 3130 1773 56.6 1357 43.4 4.54 2986 6.39 4.73 – 8.64 < .001
 500-750 1454 755 51.9 699 48.1 5.49 1397 7.42 5.43 – 10.1 < .001
 751-1000 491 356 72.5 135 27.5 2.25 464 2.47 1.72 – 3.54 < .001
 1001-1500 546 430 78.8 116 21.2 1.60 519 1.39 0.97 – 2.01 .077
 1501-1800 309 246 79.6 63 20.4 1.52 292 1.25 0.82 – 1.91 .30
 1801-2000 202 148 73.3 54 26.7 2.16 192 1.93 1.23 – 3.03 .004
 2001-2500 457 372 81.4 85 18.6 1.35 438 1.32 0.90 – 1.94 .16
 2501-4000 942 792 84.1 150 15.9 1.12 904 1.18 0.84 – 1.66 .35
 > 4000 513 439 85.6 74 14.4 1 413    
Gestational age        ††    
 < 24 weeks 3907 2083 53.3 1824 46.7 2.92     
 24 weeks 437 230 52.6 207 47.4 3.00     
 25 weeks 294 197 67.0 97 33.0 1.64     
 26 weeks 230 181 78.7 49 21.3 0.90     
 27 weeks 185 151 81.6 34 18.4 0.75     
 28 weeks 205 165 80.5 40 19.5 0.81     
 29-30 weeks 339 268 79.1 71 20.9 0.88     
 31-32 weeks 420 343 81.7 77 18.3 0.75     
 33-34 weeks 398 329 82.7 69 17.3 0.70     
 35-36 weeks 441 364 82.5 77 17.5 0.71     
 37-41 weeks 1051 881 83.8 170 16.2 0.64     
 > = 42 weeks 26 20 76.9 6 23.1 1     
Delivery method           
 Vaginal 7060 4777 67.7 2283 32.3 1 6691 1   
 C-section 946 497 52.5 449 47.5 1.89 914 3.76 3.16 – 4.48 < .001
Maternal medical history positive for diseases or predisposing conditions     
 No 4341 2949 67.9 1392 32.1 1 4091 1.09 0.97 – 1.20 .92
 Yes 3703 2362 63.8 1341 36.2 1.20 3514 1   
Presence of any congenital anomaly        
 No 7259 4902 67.5 2357 32.5 1 6880 1   
 Yes 785 409 52.1 376 47.9 1.91 725 3.03 2.51 - .365 <.001
Prenatal care visits        ††    
 0-2 visits 1228 756 61.6 472 38.4 1     
 3-7 visits 3251 1968 60.5 1283 39.5 1.04     
 8-12 visits 2004 1450 72.4 554 27.6 0.61     
 > = 13 visits 1005 725 72.1 280 27.9 0.62     
Maternal age (years)           
 < 18 569 390 68.5 179 31.5 1.56 546 1.94 1.25 – 3.01 .003
 18-19 807 518 64.2 289 35.8 1.90 785 2.25 1.49 – 3.40 < .001
 20-24 2225 1435 64.5 790 35.5 1.88 2126 2.07 1.41 – 3.06 < .001
 25-29 1975 1317 66.7 658 33.3 1.70 1870 1.76 1.19 – 2.59 .005
 30-34 1441 907 62.9 534 37.1 2.01 1357 2.05 1.38 – 3.03 < .001
 35-39 787 551 70.0 236 30.0 1.46 741 1.54 1.02 – 2.32 .041
 > = 40 194 150 77.3 44 22.7 1 180 1   
Maternal education           
 Beyond college 320 208 65.0 112 35.0 1.14 318 1.21 0.89 – 1.63 .23
 College graduate 884 541 61.2 343 38.8 1.34 877 1.36 1.10 – 1.69 .005
 1-3 years of college 1544 934 60.5 610 39.5 1.38 1530 1.35 1.13 – 1.62 .001
 High school graduate 2941 1970 67.0 971 33.0 1.04 2920 1.02 0.87 – 1.19 .84
 Less than high school 1976 1341 67.9 635 32.1 1 1960 1   
Plural birth           
 No 7056 4825 68.4 2231 31.6 1 6653 1   
 Yes 988 486 49.2 502 50.8 2.23 952 1.59 1.37 – 1.86 < .001
Geographic variation, birth hospital        
 Births in smaller counties 1522 1087 71.4 435 28.6 1 1450 1   
 Out of hospital births 140 95 67.9 45 32.1 1.18 118 2.29 0.99 – 5.27 .052
 Low birth hospitals in larger counties 228 174 76.3 54 23.7 0.78 210 0.62 0.30 – 1.27 .19
 01 63 54 85.7 9 14.3 0.42 63 1.40 0.36 - 5.35 .63
 02 107 91 85.0 16 15.0 0.44 100 1.18 0.46 - 3.04 .73
 03 76 61 80.3 15 19.7 0.61 76 0.56 0.14 - 2.29 .42
 04 106 85 80.2 21 19.8 0.62 100 0.91 0.35 - 2.32 .84
 05 214 167 78.0 47 22.0 0.70 209 0.39 0.18 - 0.84 .016
 06 99 77 77.8 22 22.2 0.71 98 0.32 0.09 - 1.13 .08
 07 106 82 77.4 24 22.6 0.73 106 0.96 0.40 - 2.33 .93
 08 545 410 75.2 135 24.8 0.82 537 0.54 0.34 - 0.84 .007
 09 86 64 74.4 22 25.6 0.86 81 0.17 0.02 - 1.13 .067
 10 105 78 74.3 27 25.7 0.86 101 0.59 0.20 - 1.72 .33
 11 76 56 73.7 20 26.3 0.89 76 0.23 0.05 - 1.20 .08
 12 127 93 73.2 34 26.8 0.91 121 0.95 0.39 - 2.33 .90
 13 205 150 73.2 55 26.8 0.92 189 1.43 0.77 - 2.67 .26
 14 147 103 70.1 44 29.9 1.07 144 0.61 0.29 - 1.29 .20
 15 293 202 68.9 91 31.1 1.13 257 0.91 0.51 - 1.62 .75
 16 97 66 68.0 31 32.0 1.17 96 1.05 0.44 - 2.50 .91
 17 65 44 67.7 21 32.3 1.19 61 0.75 0.18 - 3.10 .69
 18 237 159 67.1 78 32.9 1.23 213 1.60 0.81 - 3.19 .18
 19 87 58 66.7 29 33.3 1.25 80 1.46 0.54 - 3.97 .46
 20 69 45 65.2 24 34.8 1.33 69 0.95 0.31 - 2.93 .93
 21 110 70 63.6 40 36.4 1.43 110 1.14 0.49 - 2.64 .76
 22 106 66 62.3 40 37.7 1.51 102 0.47 0.15 - 1.44 .18
 23 117 72 61.5 45 38.5 1.56 115 0.56 0.23 - 1.39 .22
 24 332 200 60.2 132 39.8 1.65 307 1.40 0.82 - 2.41 .22
 25 356 214 60.1 142 39.9 1.66 352 1.69 1.06 - 2.70 .027
 26 288 170 59.0 118 41.0 1.73 276 1.04 0.58 - 1.86 .90
 27 73 43 58.9 30 41.1 1.74 73 2.49 0.96 - 6.43 .060
 28 364 197 54.1 167 45.9 2.12 363 1.55 0.97 - 2.46 .066
 29 515 274 53.2 241 46.8 2.20 419 2.30 1.50 - 3.54 < .001
 30 555 289 52.1 266 47.9 2.30 534 2.12 1.45 - 3.11 < .001
 31 428 215 50.2 213 49.8 2.48 399 2.33 1.50 - 3.60 < .001
  1. *The total population of events was 8044. Four variables had missing data. Total records with data for these were: gestational age = 7933, prenatal care visits = 7488, maternal age = 7998, and maternal education = 7665.
  2. † Odds of classification as infant (early neonatal) death compared to fetal death (reference group OR = 1). For bivariate associations, each listed variable had p < .001.
  3. ‡ There were 7605 records with data for the 9 variables included in the multivariable model. A logistic regression model using a one-stage cluster design (birth hospital) was used for this analysis.
  4. § C.I. = confidence interval.
  5. †† Variable was not included in the modeling process (see text).