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Table 1 Covariates by treatment (intrapartum antibiotics) and outcome (neonatal sepsis)

From: The effect of intrapartum antibiotics on early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a propensity score matched analysis

  Treatment - intrapartum antibiotics Outcome - sepsis
  # no abx (n) % # with abx (n) % p-value # no sepsis (n) % # with sepsis (n) % p-value
Total 552   48    523   77   
Preterm 62 11.23 4 8.33   53 10.13 13 16.88  
No preterm 398 72.1 38 79.17 0.468 386 73.8 50 64.94 0.060
Missing 92 16.67 6 12.5 0.574 84 16.06 14 18.18 0.158
Low birth weight <2500 grams 92 16.67 7 14.58   85 16.25 14 18.18  
Not low birth weight 419 75.91 38 79.17 0.681 398 76.1 59 76.62 0.742
Missing 41 7.43 3 6.25 0.878 40 7.65 4 5.19 0.703
No tetanus toxoid 58 10.51 4 8.33   52 9.94 10 12.99  
Received tetanus toxoid 493 89.31 43 89.58 0.663 467 89.67 67 87.01 0.419
Missing 1 0.18 1 2.08 0.082 2 0.38 0 0 0.622
Antenatal care from a provider other than doctor 409 74.09 25 52.08   376 71.89 58 75.32  
Antenatal care from doctor 123 22.28 21 43.75 0.001 127 24.28 17 22.08 0.630
Missing 20 3.62 2 4.17 0.003 20 3.82 2 2.6 0.771
Mom no schooling 114 20.65 6 12.5   100 19.12 20 25.97  
Mom schooling 438 79.35 41 85.42 0.195 422 80.96 57 74.03 0.163
Missing 0 0 1 2.08 0.001 1 0.19 0 74.03 0.351
Maternal age < =22 272 49.28 22 45.83   253 48.37 41 53.25  
Maternal age >22 280 50.72 26 54.17 0.647 270 51.63 36 46.75 0.425
Roof tin, straw, leaf, bamboo 431 78.08 32 66.67   399 76.29 64 83.12  
Roof concrete, brick, cement 121 21.92 16 33.33 0.071 124 23.71 13 16.88 0.183
Wall tin, straw, leaf, bamboo, mud 216 39.13 14 29.17   199 38.05 31 40.26  
Wall concrete, brick, cement 336 60.87 34 70.83 0.173 324 61.95 46 59.74 0.710
Floor semi concrete, wood, straw, leaf, bamboo, mud 117 21.2 7 14.58   110 21.03 14 18.18  
Floor concrete 435 78.8 41 85.42 0.278 413 78.97 63 81.82 0.564
Household number >3 281 50.91 19 39.58   255 48.76 45 58.44  
Household number < =3 271 49.09 28 58.33 0.168 267 51.05 32 41.56 0.116
Missing 0 0 1 2.08 0.001 1 0.19 0 0 0.270
Number of children under 5 > 0 131 23.73 13 27.08   122 23.33 22 28.57  
Number of children under 5 = 0 421 76.27 34 70.83 0.545 400 76.48 55 71.43 0.319
Missing 0 0 1 2.08 0.003 1 0.19 0 0 0.565
Household latrine slab or hanging 210 38.04 13 27.08   192 36.71 31 40.26  
Household latrine sanitary 342 61.96 34 70.83 0.157 330 63.1 46 59.74 0.556
Missing 0 0 1 2.08 0.001 1 0.19 0 0 0.781
Household drinking water source tube 249 45.11 15 31.25   223 42.64 41 53.25  
Household drinking water source tap 303 54.89 32 66.67 0.080 299 57.17 36 46.75 0.082
Missing 0 0 1 2.08 0.001 1 0.19 0 0 0.205
Wealth (upper quintile of wealth)* 118 21.38 16 33.33   121 23.14 13 16.88  
Wealth (lower four quintiles) 434 78.62 31 64.58 0.045 401 76.67 64 83.12 0.431
Missing 0 0 1 2.08 <0.001 1 0.19 0 0 0.216
Active labor 239 43.3 15 31.25   216 41.3 38 49.35  
Early labor 274 49.64 29 60.42 0.110 269 51.43 34 44.16 0.190
Missing 39 7.07 4 8.33 0.269 38 7.27 5 6.49 0.409
Time in labor > =8 hours 277 50.18 22 45.83   257 49.14 42 54.55  
Time in labor < 8 hours 263 47.64 26 54.17 0.468 254 48.57 35 45.45 0.487
Missing 12 2.17 0 0 0.449 12 2.29 0 0 0.317
Rupture of membranes at presentation 215 38.95 29 60.42   216 41.3 28 36.36  
No rupture of membranes at presentation 326 59.06 19 39.57 0.005 296 56.6 49 63.64 0.333
Missing 11 1.99 0 0 0.012 11 2.1 0 0 0.273
Premature rupture of membranes 50 9.06 6 12.5   47 8.99 9 11.69  
No premature rupture of membranes 491 88.95 42 87.5 0.461 465 88.91 68 88.31 0.484
Missing 11 1.99 0 0 0.466 11 2.1 0 0 0.342
Amniotic Fluid green or cloudy 97 17.57 6 12.5   91 17.4 12 15.58  
Amniotic Fluid clear 432 78.26 40 83.33 0.369 409 78.2 63 81.82 0.643
Missing 23 4.17 2 4.17 0.668 23 4.4 2 2.6 0.683
Maternal temperature > =99 27 4.89 1 2.08   24 4.59 4 5.19  
Maternal temperature <99 492 89.13 47 97.92 0.340 470 89.87 69 89.61 0.819
Missing 33 5.98 0 0 0.136 29 5.54 4 5.19 0.966
Number of vaginal exams performed > =3 263 47.64 27 56.25   251 47.99 39 50.65  
Number of vaginal exams < 3 276 50 20 41.67 0.255 529 49.52 37 48.05 0.733
Missing 13 2.36 1 2.08 0.519 13 2.49 1 1.3 0.766
No hand washing before vaginal exam 134 24.28 15 31.25   130 24.86 19 24.68  
Hand washing before exam 395 71.56 32 66.67 0.323 370 70.75 57 74.03 0.853
Missing 23 4.17 1 2.08 0.474 23 4.4 1 1.3 0.424
No hand washing before delivery 34 6.16 2 4.17   31 5.93 5 6.49  
Hand washing before delivery 497 90.04 44 91.67 0.580 470 89.87 71 92.21 0.895
Missing 21 3.8 2 4.17 0.852 22 4.21 1 1.3 0.459
Colonization 202 36.59 17 35.42   184 35.18 35 45.45  
No colonization 337 61.05 29 60.42 0.944 326 62.33 40 51.95 0.080
Missing 13 2.36 2 4.17 0.741 13 2.49 2 2.6 0.209
Antibiotics*       45 8.6 3 3.9  
No antibiotics       478 91.4 74 96.1 0.155
  1. *Not used to calculate propensity score.