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Table 1 Characteristics and adiposity measurements among 1110 Project Viva participants at ages 6.5-10.9 years 1

From: Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

Variable N Normal weight (n=826) Overweight (n=149) Obese (n=135)
   Mean (SD)/%
Mother/Family     
Smoked during pregnancy 1069 8.8% 7.1% 20.3%
Completed college 1104 71.3% 70.3% 45.9%
Multiparous 1110 51.7% 52.4% 56.3%
Annual household income > $70,000 1006 66.0% 69.3% 42.3%
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 1104 23.8 (4.5) 25.9 (5.2) 28.8 (7.3)
Child     
Female 1110 49.5% 54.4% 48.2%
Race/ethnicity 1108    
  Asian   4.0% 3.4% 0.0%
  Black   13.7% 15.4% 37.8%
  Hispanic   3.5% 4.0% 8.9%
  White   67.2% 66.4% 37.8%
  More than one race/other   11.5% 10.7% 15.6%
Height (cm) 1110 127.6 (7.2) 130.9 (8.4) 134.0 (8.3)
Weight (kg) 1110 26.0 (4.1) 32.8 (5.6) 43.0 (10.5)
BMI (kg/m2) 1110 15.9 (1.2) 19.0 (1.0) 23.6 (3.5)
BMI z-score 1110 −0.05 (0.73) 1.31 (0.17) 2.07 (0.28)
Leg Length 1109 59.7 (4.6) 61.3 (5.5) 63.3 (5.8)
Waist circumference (cm) 1106 56.6 (4.1) 64.5 (5.0) 76.1 (9.4)
Hip circumference (cm) 1094 65.3 (4.7) 72.7 (6.0) 82.5 (8.5)
Subscapular skinfold thickness (mm) 1103 6.3 (2.0) 10.7 (7.5) 18.7 (7.2)
Triceps skinfold thickness (mm) 1106 9.6 (2.8) 14.5 (3.6) 20.6 (5.3)
BIA fat mass (kg) 1109 4.3 (1.7) 7.8 (2.3) 14.5 (5.9)
BIA % fat 1109 16.2 (4.3) 23.6 (4.2) 32.7 (6.5)
BIA fat-free mass (kg) 875 21.7 (3.1) 25.0 (3.9) 28.2 (5.3)
DXA total fat mass (kg) 875 5.8 (1.6) 9.1 (2.2) 15.0 (4.8)
DXA trunk fat (kg) 875 1.8 (0.6) 3.1 (1.0) 5.8 (2.3)
DXA % fat 875 22.2 (4.5) 27.8 (4.4) 34.8 (5.2)
DXA fat-free mass (kg) 875 20.3 (3.2) 23.7 (3.8) 27.5 (5.4)
  1. 1 Abbreviations as follows: BIA bioelectrical impedance. Normal weight, overweight, and obese defined as BMI z-score <85th percentile, 85th-<95th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively.