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Table 2 Risk factors for recurrent wheezing in the fifth year of life using logistic regression*

From: Persistent recurring wheezing in the fifth year of life after laboratory-confirmed, medically attended respiratory syncytial virus infection in infancy

  Beta Adjusted odds ratio 95% CI PValue
Sex     
 Male 0.40 1.49 1.39–1.60 <.0001
 Female reference    
Race     
 White reference    
 African-American 0.53 1.71 1.52–1.91 <.0001
 Asian 0.31 1.36 1.24–1.49 <.0001
 Hispanic 0.10 1.11 1.01–1.22 0.0356
 Other/unknown 0.22 1.25 1.09–1.44 0.0020
Maternal age, y     
 <18 -0.07 0.94 0.69–1.28 0.6764
 18–34 reference    
 ≥35 0.04 1.04 0.96–1.13 0.3321
Family history of asthma     
 Unknown reference    
 Father only 0.59 1.81 1.44–2.27 <.0001
 Mother only 0.76 2.15 1.87–2.47 <.0001
 Both parents 0.53 1.70 0.61–4.71 0.3109
Siblings <5 y of age in house     
 None reference    
 ≥1 -0.15 0.86 0.80–0.92 <.0001
Congenital anomaly     
 Present 0.13 1.14 1.00-1.29 0.0493
 Absent reference    
Small for gestational age     
 No reference    
 Yes -0.04 0.96 0.72–1.28 0.7822
Gestational age, wk     
 32–33 0.40 1.49 1.15–1.92 0.0022
 34–36 0.26 1.30 1.14–1.48 <.0001
 37 0.11 1.12 0.98–1.29 0.1049
 38–40 reference    
 ≥41 -0.06 0.95 0.85–1.05 0.2717
Oxygen exposure and BPD     
 No oxygen exposure, no BPD reference    
 <200 hours oxygen, no BPD 0.28 1.32 1.12–1.57 0.0012
 ≥200 hours oxygen, no BPD 0.69 2.00 1.37–2.90 0.0003
 BPD 1.03 2.80 1.31–5.98 0.0078
Unspecified respiratory hospitalization     
 None reference    
 Uncomplicated hospitalization 0.50 1.65 0.98–2.79 0.0594
 Prolonged hospitalization 1.24 3.46 1.94–6.16 <.0001
Laboratory-confirmed, medically attended RSV infection     
 None reference    
 Outpatient visit only 0.32 1.38 1.03–1.85 0.0307
 Uncomplicated hospitalization 0.68 1.98 1.39–2.81 0.0002
 Prolonged hospitalization 0.95 2.59 1.49–4.50 0.0007
Laboratory-confirmed, medically attended infection with other pathogen     
 None reference    
 Outpatient visit only 0.26 1.30 0.62–0.69 0.4883
 Uncomplicated hospitalization 0.32 1.38 0.54–3.52 0.4981
 Prolonged hospitalization 0.74 2.10 0.76–5.80 0.1526
  1. Abbreviations: BPD Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, CI Confidence interval, RSV Respiratory syncytial virus, wk week, y year.
  2. *Based on study cohort of 72,602 children, of whom 3380 had recurrent wheezing in the fifth year of life. See text for description of cohort and definition of recurrent wheezing. Results have been adjusting for infant and mother demographic and clinical characteristics.
  3. Please refer to the appropriate section of the footnotes to Table 2 for further details.
  4. Percent adherence to recommended course per AAP guidelines, see online appendix for details of how adherence was calculated.