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Table 1 Relationship between prevalence of external birth defects and selected maternal characteristics

From: External birth defects in southern Vietnam: a population-based study at the grassroots level of health care in Binh Thuan province

Maternal characteristics External birth defects n = 84 (%) Prevalence/1,000 mothers PR¥ 95% CI
Gravidity     p= 0.06*
  1 41 (44.8) 8.75 2.31 1.43 – 3.75
  2 -3 28 (33.3) 3.79 1 -
  ≥ 4 15 (17.9) 8.29 2.18 1.15 – 4.04
Education level     p= 0.78*
  Illiteracy 7 (8.3) 15.05 2.42 1.06 – 5.49
  Primary school (6-10 years) 14 (16.7) 4.87 0.78 0.41 – 1.51
  Secondary school (11–14 years) 41 (48.8) 5.86 0.94 0.57 – 1.60
  High school or higher education (≥ 15 years) 22 (26.2) 6.22 1 -
Economic status     p= 0.03*
  Very poor 3 (3.6) 13.82 3.50 0.71 – 17.44
  Poor 9 (10.7) 9.33 2.36 0.58 – 9.69
  Well 70 (83.3) 5.74 1.46 0.43 – 5.39
  Well-to-do 2 (2.4) 3.94 1 -
Occupation of mother    p = 0.39*
  Farmer and agricultural chemical product sellers 35 (31.6) 5,003 1.37 0.82 – 1.95
  Other 49 (63.9) 8,874 1 -
  1. * Trend test p-value; ¥ PR: Prevalence ratio.