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Table 1 Characteristics of individual studies of both hypermobility and DCD

From: The relationship between joint mobility and motor performance in children with and without the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder

Study Type of Sample N Measure Instrument Outcome (%)
Adib et al. [7] Prospectively (1) through hypermobility clinic and retrospectively (2) through rheumatology department included, based on referrals by specialists or hospital notes* 125 (1) Beighton score Clumsy 44/92 (48%)
    Medical examination Easy bruising 39/91(43%)
    (1 &2) Questionnaire Poor coordination 30/86 (36%)
     Walked after 15 months 19/57(33%)
     Clicky joints 25/84(30%)
    Age range3-17 years Learning difficulty 13/91 (14%)
  *number per group unknown    Dyslexia 2/88 (2%)
     Dyspraxia 6/87 (7%)
Engelbert et al. [12] Retrospective hospital chart review of children with hypermobility complaints   Bulbena: passive maneuvers of 9 joints (thumb, little finger, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, patella, ankle, and first metatarsophalangeal joint) and the presence of ecchymoses is recorded. Generalized hypermobility of the joints is present when a score > =5 is obtained in females and > =4 in males. Delay in motor development:
     (1) 9/16 (56%), no significant association between the delay in motor development (yes/no) and the Bulbena score.
  n = 16 < 2.5 years of age (1) 16   
  n = 56 ≥ 4 years of age (2) 56   
     (2) severe; 14/56 (25%), at risk 12/56 (21%), age appropriate 30/56 (54%). No significant association between delay in motor development and the Bulbena score found. Median score P15
    1-2.5 years: Bayley Scales of Infant Development  
    4-12 years: Movement Assessment Battery for Children  
Kirby and Davies [14] Random group (mean age 10.8y, range 5-18y) of TDC (1) 27 (1)Parental responses and Movement ABC Checklist. 37% of the children with DCD against 7.4% in the TDC group had symptoms of JHS.
    (2)MABC score <5%  
  Children diagnosed with DCD (mean age 12.5y, range 9-17y) (2) 27 (1)& (2) A questionnaire based on the ‘five-part questionnaire for identifying hypermobility’  
Hands and Larkin [16] Children with motor learning difficulties (MLD) 52 McCarron Assessment of neuromuscular development (MAND 1982) MABC (1992) Overall, the group with MLD was significantly less flexible than the control group. The group with MLD had a higher BMI and lower performance levels on the sit and reach, sit-ups, standing broad jump, 50-metre run, and the shuttle run.
  Age and gender matched control group 52   
    Qualitative observation of poor motor performance skills  
    Fitness assessment battery  
Cantell et al. [15] Children (8–9 years), adolescents (17–18 years) and adults (20–60 years) with high or low motor performance 39 MABC The low motor competence groups scored higher on the BMI, had a greater percentage of body fat and showed poorer fitness results in endurance, flexibility and strength
   44 DCDQ  
   66 Body Composition  
    Cardio Respiratoir Fitness  
    Flexibility  
    Muscle strength  
    Lung capacity  
    Leisure participation